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Now it is my turn and opinion(my opinion)I have noticed that some parties is still continuing "checking" to see if I am still on the air re; AM 1700(No)well it is like this,have something better to do,I was not a pirate, you are nosy,still harassing me. I bought the AM system as it was,I feel that I was wrongly judged and treated like a common criminal. I meant no harm,I should have fought this,people will not let if you are so bored and have nothing else to do,be my guest and snoop,check it out,ooohh I am so bad,I am going to corrupt the airwaves..ooooooooo...I know bold,how dare I,enough is enough,stop it,stop the phone calls,the emails and such,stop wasting your time and move on..I will fight this...and to some on get a life worry about other criminals and assume all microbroadcasters are bad,they are not..if it continues I will take this to court and stop the harassment..
This is dedicated to you dear FCC Field Agent in Vancouver Wa.. Have you seen the bigger piggies In their starched white shirts You will find the bigger piggies Stirring up the dirt Always have clean shirts to play around in.
In their sties with all their backing They don't care what goes on around In their eyes there's something lacking What they need's a damn good whacking.
Everywhere there's lots of piggies Living piggy lives You can see them out for dinner With their piggy wives Clutching forks and knives to eat their bacon.
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Credit goes to Craig and other at… KVAN Years..,etc. 1. On April 15, 1955 Camas-Washougal Radio applied to the FCC to build radio station at Camas, Washington on 1480kc with 1 kilowatt of power, daytime only. The new station would serve the entire Eastern section of Clark County with "high fidelity transmitting equipment." 36 year old Gene R. Johnsick was President of Camas-Washougal Radio and was also KJUN Redmond, Ore. Chief Engineer & Asst. Manager. Construction cost estimated at: $15,775. First year operating cost: $28,000. First year revenue: $36,000. On September 28, 1955 a Construction Permit was approved by the FCC and call letters KRIV were assigned. It's believed the calls stood for RIVer, the Columbia River was near, as was the Washougal River.
On November 3, 1955 it was announced KRIV would begin operation on December 1, 1955. On that date, it was announced that due to bad weather, erection of the tower had been impossible and the beginning date postponed for an indefinite period of time. By February 2, 1956 KRIV had made its broadcast debut with little fanfare. KRIV studios were located on the 2nd floor (above the United Gas Co.) at 314 N.E. Ceder St. in Camas. The Collins 20V-1 (aka 20V) transmitter & 200 foot tower were located at 1916 N.E. 2nd Ave., in Camas, next to the Washougal River. Donald R. Nelson was General Manager, Program Director, News Director & Sports Director. Rod Walters was Asst. Manager & Gene R. Johnsick, Chief Engineer. KRIV operated daily from sunrise to local sunset. On February 20, 1956 the FCC issued KRIV its first license.
On June 2, 1956 the worst flood to hit the Columbia River since the 1948 Vanport Flood, backed up the Washougal River, threatening the KRIV transmitter site. The Red Cross & Civil Defence requested KRIV to broadcast 24 hours a day, to keep the community informed with the latest bulletins. The transmitter site was successfully sandbagged. On July 9, 1956 KRIV requested the Camas City Council to reimburse the station $1,200 for overtime, extra help & sandbagging. The council turned down this request. KRIV had operated just six months. Taking on such a financial burden so early in the station's start-up to help the community, then given the cold shoulder, must have soured Mr. Johnsick on the entire situation.
By December 1956 L.D. Adcox was Commercial Manager & Farm Director, with Ann Adcox, Woman's Director. Needing more capital, Mr. Johnsick took on a partner. On June 27, 1957 KRIV license name changed to Gene R. Johnsick & Donald R. Nelson doing business as Camas-Washougal Radio, effective 8-1-57. In 1957 John A. "Jack" Luetjen (former KRTV GM&PD, later KKEY CM) became General Manager.
On January 22, 1958 KRIV was purchased by 39 year old William Barry Murphy and his wife Cathryn Cragen Murphy for an undisclosed amount. Effective 2-4-58. William "Bill" Murphy became General Manager & Chief Engineer. He was previously KWIL Program Director, had worked at KBND, KOOS and had acquired interests in Florida & Michigan radio stations. Cathryn Murphy became Commercial Manager. She was a former Hollywood starlet, Hawaiian radio personality and song writer. They were married in 1952.
On April 4, 1958 KRIV call letters were changed to KPVA which stood for Portland Vancouver Area. By this time the Murphy's had come to the conclusion the station would have to move to Vancouver to become profitable and to be closer to KPVA's real target, Portland. By July 1958 KPVA personnel included: Sandy Rhodes, Program Director; Tom Sawyer, Farm Director; Christmas Early (aka Mrs. Murphy), Woman's Director & Vincent Ast, Jr., Promotion Manager. On October 29, 1958 the FCC granted KRIV studios a move to the "Crown-Zellerback Hotel" at 714 N.E. 4th Ave. in Camas. By December 1958 KPVA had opened a sales office in the "Nortonia Hotel" at 409 S.W. 11th Ave. in Portland.
By December 1959 KPVA had moved studios to downtown Portland in the "Washington Hotel" at 1129 S.W. Washington St. but also must have maintained a studio at it's transmitter site in Camas. Also by December 1959 KPVA was primarily a Country & Western music station. Portland area's only C&W station had been KKEY but they had jettisoned the format in August. Some of the first KPVA C&W deejays were Cuzin Rufus & Buddy Simmons. The Murphy's marriage was beginning to fall apart. Out of nowhere, William B. Murphy announced on March 10, 1960 that he had filed as the 5th person to run for the Democratic nomination for U.S. Senate in the Oregon primary. A six year term. He also mentioned he had applications for FM stations in Portland & Seattle.
"I believe that my 20 years of community interest activities in the radio broadcasting field and my 18 years of service to my country in the Naval Reserve qualify me to serve the people of Oregon in The Nation's Capital," Murphy said. He had previously lost an election attempt at a Hawaii Territorial Legislature seat in 1952, where the Murphy's most likely met and married. While away, chasing his political aspirations, Cathryn Murphy took charge of KPVA becoming Station Manager. On April 20, 1960 the FCC canceled KVAN, Inc. construction permit to build KVAN-TV channel 21, which had tied up the KVAN call letters for almost a year, were now available.
On May 9, 1960 KPVA became KVAN. The calls were well known in the Portland, Vancouver area from the previous assignment on 910kc for the past 20 years. Plus the original KVAN had been a C&W station most of the 1950's. The new KVAN could ride on the call letter coat tails. It must have been much easier selling air time to new clients. Call letter meaning: Vancouver. On May 21, 1960 William B. Murphy lost the Oregon Democratic nomination for U.S. Senate. In early July 1960 KVAN debuted the earliest talk show in the Portland area "Party Line" with moderator Bob LaMarque, from 2:00pm to 4:00pm weekdays.
Also debuting in July 1960 was "The Hour For Your Deliverance" live from "Deliverance Temple" at 7626 N.E. Glisan with Evangelist, Bob Robins, weekday mornings at 9:00am. By August 1960 Crystal Lake Church & Gospel Park was broadcast live from 2615 Harrison St. in Milwaukie with Rev. Edna M. Brock, Pastor, weekday mornings at 7:30am to 8:00am and Bill Cunningham was doing an interview show weekday afternoons 1:45pm to 2:00pm. By August 1960 Buddy Simmons (later on KRDR) was KVAN Program Director; Ed Stanton, Farm Director & Don Burbank, Promotions Director. Slogan: "KVAN with offices in the Washington Hotel, home of the Timber Topper Restaurant."
On November 1, 1960 in a property settlement, Cathryn Murphy became 100% owner & General Manager of KVAN after her divorce from William B. Murphy. Licensee name changed to: Mrs. Cathryn C. Murphy. This was her first solo business venture. It is not known what Bill Murphy did after this or what ever happened to him. A month and a half later on December 15, 1960 the FCC granted KVAN permission to change city of license to Vancouver, Washington. Without Mrs. Murphy's engineering husband to take this victory to the next step, she didn't finish the paper work. Instead she filled out the "Broadcasting Yearbook" questionnaire, now as a Vancouver station. The Yearbook staff bought it and changed KVAN's Camas listing to where KISN & KKEY were listed in the 1961-62 edition. By the following 63 edition, KVAN had been moved back to the Camas listing.
In May 1961 William "Les Josslin" was moderator of "World Outlook" at 2:00pm Tuesday's. On October 6, 1961 KVAN moved its remote studio from the "Washington Hotel" in Portland, to the "Riviera Motel" at 321 Main St. in Vancouver. By December 1961 "Boring Gospel Time" was aired Sunday's at 9:00am live from "Gospel House" in Boring, Oregon with Pastor, David Wasson.
On December 30, 1961 the transmitter and additional studio was moved from 1916 N.E. 2nd Ave., in Camas, Washington to 12640 N. Farr Rd. on Hayden Island, Oregon. The location was in the N.W. corner parking area at "Jantzen Beach Amusement Park", which today is about where "Video Only" is at 1860 N. Hayden Island Dr. The studio was in a small building which stood a few feet above ground. It had no running water or toilet. Disc jockey's walked 20 or 30 yards to an outhouse. The tower was about 20 or 30 feet from the studio.
Jim Boland remembers: "You'd walk in the door and be staring at the Collins 20V-1 (aka 20V) transmitter. In the same room to the right was the Collins console and turntables and tape decks, against the right wall. You'd pass a cluttered desk and go into the record library room, which was also Mrs. Murphy's office. That was about it." Slogan: "KVAN 1480kc, With The New Loud Signal."
On February 3, 1962 William H. "Bill" Cunningham was announced as Promotion Manager. On April 14, 1962 Billboard reported "Mark Raymer is now spinning Country wax on "Country Music Show Time" over KVAN." In September 1962 "Amen Corner" was on weekday mornings from 7:30am to 8:00am. On October 2, 1962 KVAN announced one of its disc jockey's would be a flagpole sitter on top of the KVAN tower, pending FCC approval. By October 1962 Roy O. Fowler was Program Director; Richard Johnson, News Director & Lee Fiksdal, Chief Engineer. By October 1963 Loyal E.W. Conley was KVAN (KLIQ C.E., formerly with KHFS) Station Manager & Chief Engineer and Don McCracken, Sales Manager. On June 15, 1964 it was announced Ben Crosby (former KWJJ PM) had been appointed Commercial Manager and KVAN executive offices had moved from the "Washington Hotel" to the "Sheraton Motor Inn" at 1000 N.E. Multnomah St.
On October 23, 1964 United Press International news service filed suit against KVAN, Suing for non-payment of fees and loss of profits. William B. Murphy & Cathryn C. Murphy had entered into a ten year agreement in 1960 to use UPI Radio News reports. KVAN owed $1,132.44 for past services and UPI lost $26,320.50 in profits. By 1965 Wayne Allen was a popular C&W disc jockey on KVAN. By September 1965 Mort Friedman, was Program Director. In September 1965 KVAN picked up the broadcasts of the "Radio Rosary" daily at 4pm for 15 minutes live from "Holy Rosary Church" at 375 N.E. Clackamas St. By October 1965 KVAN had officially changed its city of license from Camas to Vancouver and was reported to have no newscasts. New records were selected for air play by Mrs. Murphy. Samuel P. "Sam" King was Program Director; Mort Friedman, Sales Manager & Loyal E.W. Conley, Chief Engineer. It was also reported that in 1965 Mr. Murphy had not responded to official FCC correspondence, as well as in later years.
By October 9, 1965 KVAN had switched format from Country & Western to a Jazz/Easy Listening format, listed in the trades as "Pop Standards". When K-Van started its C&W format, it was the only station in the Portland area. Then KRDR in 1963 & KWJJ in 1965 became competitors. Chris Burns (later KLIQ ND, KYXI, KGON ND, KUPL ND, KGW ND, KKSN AM/FM ND, KINY) began at KVAN November 4, 1965 and remembers, music was on reel to reel tape & LP's. Slogans were never used. Chris would sign KVAN on the air illegally at 4:30am by order of Mrs. Murphy. Gorgeous George followed Chris from 8:30am to 1:30pm.
By December 1965 KVAN executive offices had moved from the "Sheraton Motor Inn" to a building in the Hollywood District at 2010 N.E. 44th Ave. In January 1966 the "White Brothers Revival" was on KVAN weekday mornings at 9:30am hosted by Evangelists Harlo & Gordon White. By this time George Nevitt was a disc jockey on K-Van. By April 1966 "Portland Temple" was on the air at 8:30am weekday mornings live from 2030 S.E. Hawthorne St. On April 28, 1966 burglars broke into KVAN and stole $65.00 worth of relay tubes.
On April 30, 1966 burglars returned and this time knocked KVAN off the air for 7 days by stealing four tubes from the transmitter. KVAN was going to return to the air on May 7, 1966 but was burglarized overnight again and had to postpone broadcasting until May 8, 1966. A cart machine & tape recorder had been taken and the transmitter was thrown out of balance.
On June 7, 1966 KVAN was knocked off the air again for 5 days by burglars, after stealing equipment. On June 11, 1966 KVAN returned to the airwaves but burglars knocked it off the air that evening. The burglars entered through a boarded up window that had been broken from a previous burglary. KVAN expected to be back on the air in 3 or 4 days. In Summer 1966 James "Jim" Boland (later KLC CE, KOAP-TV BT, KATU E.) became Chief Engineer and Mike Youse was a disc jockey.
By October 1966 Louis K. Ballinger was Chief Engineer; Paul Snyder, Sales Manager & Francis Jackson, Promotion Manager. By December 1966 the Hollywood District offices were moved to the Jantzen Beach Park studio & transmitter site. In February 1967 KVAN broadcast Religious Programs mornings & Easy Listening music afternoons. Evenings featured Soul music from 5pm to sunset with Big Bob Allen (later aka Bob Gallucci on KUIK, KKSN & KAAR) as "Your Count of Soul". Due to the popularity of his show and his presence in the Albina community, he emceed the "Miss Tan Portland" Pageant on July 22, 1967 (winner: Jo Ann Twitty).
On July 26, 1967 KVAN was fined by the FCC $500 for seven violations including: Unattended operation for the remote reading of antenna and common point ammeters. Did not file before April 1st an annual financial report. Did not file in a timely manner a renewal application. No entries were made on the program logs. By October 1967 Loyal E.W. Conley was back as Chief Engineer; Mort Friedman, Commercial Manager & Adah Louise (Mrs. Murphy's daughter), Promotion Manager.
On October 17, 1967 the FCC granted KVAN reducing power from 1kw to 500 watts for technical reasons, until 2-21-68. On March 15, 1968 Paul Hanson (later on KQOT, KOHI, KLIQ-FM, KPAM/KPFM ND, KYXI, KGON ND, KYXI ND, KYTE AM/FM, KATU, KGW-TV, KXL, KEX, KOTK, KVAN 1550 ND) became a K-Van disc jockey. In the April 1, 1968 "Broadcasting" magazine (Page 9) it mentioned 32 ASCAP members were said "to have filed against KVAN Vancouver & Cathryn C. Murphy owner. Suits seek restraining orders against future performances, plus statutory damages of not less than $250 for each unauthorized performance."
On July 30, 1968 an announcement: "Cathryn Murphy, owner of KVAN reports that the station will go progressive (sometimes called underground) this week with its music." By October 1968 Steven Cota was Chief Engineer; Adah Louise, Commercial Manager & Windy Carpenter, Advertising Manager. On November 18, 1968 it was reported Adah Murphy, KVAN Program Director was using a controversial "Soul" rendition for its sign off and had for the past month. "It's more of a compliment than an insult," said Murphy. K-Van slogan: 1480 Miles High, 1480 Tons Heavy, KVAN". On December 6, 1968 the FCC authorized KVAN to relocate and operate on a temporary basis at a site specified in pending application through 1-23-69. KVAN was forced to move from Jantzen Beach Park which had closed down. K-Van's leased land had been sold to developers for the new "Jantzen Beach Mall" being constructed on the site.
On April 11, 1969 Mrs. Murphy announced KVAN was back on the air, after being off last week to move to a new location 18608 North Portland Rd. Mrs. Murphy commented: Matters were complicated when someone stole several vital pieces of equipment. KVAN's new studio & transmitter site was very primitive. The studio was located in a trailer house with no running water or toilet facilities. DJ's were told to use the bathroom at the "St. Johns Gun Club & Dog Motel" which had the same address as KVAN. The bathroom (you'll be happy to know) was in the Gun Club building. The Dog Motel was down the road a ways.
KVAN's Collins 20V-1 (aka 20V) transmitter had no tower to broadcast from! Instead a horizontal dipole was flown between some trees down by the Dog Motel near Smith Lake. In June 1969 "Evangelist David Nunn" was heard weekday mornings at 7:30am. In July 1969 Paul St. John (simultaneously on KLIQ) became KVAN Chief Engineer & D.J. By July 1969 "Amen Corner" from Crystal Lake Church was heard live with Rev. Edna M. Brock, Pastor at a new time 7:00am.
On August 25, 1969 FCC authorized KVAN to operate with a 200 foot flat top antenna (65 1/2 foot poles) at 11665 North Portland Rd. through 11-25-69. In August 1969 Gray Frierson Haertig (formerly KRRC CE, KBOO CE) became KVAN Chief Engineer. On October 7, 1969 KVAN granted a construction permit to change transmitter & studio location to 11805 N. Portland Rd. Then on the same day, amended to change antenna transmitter and studio location to 11665 North Portland Rd. (45 '36 "29 / 122 42' 37"). Please note the three addresses on North Portland Rd. (18608, 11665, 11805 & back to 11665) and there was a fourth on North Portland Rd. which is the correct address: 11197 North Portland Rd. Were any of the other addresses actual temporary broadcast sites, is unknown.
On November 12, 1969 the FCC gave temporary authorization to operate at the temporary site, extended to 1-11-70. On January 8, 1970 KVAN was given another temporary authorization extension through 2-6-70. In mid January 1970 KVAN erected a 200 foot transmitter tower and in February 1970 K-Van's studio trailer was replaced by a house but still no running water or toilet. On March 1, 1970 Bob Ancheta, "The Big B.A." joined the K-Van jocks 3:00pm to sunset. The others were: Adah Murphy 6:00am to 11:00am & Dave Lind 11:00am to 3:00pm.
Despite K-Van playing 5 hours of Album Rock, it all came to a stop at 4:00pm. Time for the 15 minute "Radio Rosary". Then back Rock! The Big B.A. remembers: "It was live most of the time. We did record it occasionally and then playback later. It was always at 4pm, but later we would move it right before sign off so we would not disrupt the regular programming. Sometimes we forgot to record the Rosary and we had to grab a back up tape. Each day believe it or not it was a different Rosary and we had to find the correct one otherwise some old lady would call up and give us hell. "The Holy Rosary For World Peace" was the intro. We used to occasionally play "God Gave Rock And Roll To You" by Argent afterwards. (released in 1973). It was always interesting listening to what was going on live (in cue) from the church (Holy Rosary Church) before the Rosary, as the mic was always live. There were never more than 3-4 people in the church. This ended in 74."
In April 1970 Ken Heine was Chief Engineer. April 29, 1970 KVAN was given another authorization extension through 7-6-70. June 30, 1970 the FCC extended KVAN's time through 9-30-70. July 6, 1970 The FCC gave KVAN another temporary authorization to operate at 11197 North Portland Rd. extended to 9-6-70. This was the first time the correct address was mentioned in an FCC document. Sept 4, 1970 KVAN received temporary authorization to operate at temporary site extended to 10-1-70. October 9, 1970 the FCC extended temporary authorization to 12-15-70. November 2, 1970 FCC extended temporary authorization and temporary site through 2-4-71. By January 1971 KVAN was mentioned playing Acid Rock. January 27, 1971 FCC granted construction permit to replace expired permit. Cancelled 9-23-74. February 4, 1971 FCC extended KVAN's temporary authorization and temporary site through 4-4-71. April 1, 1971 FCC extended KVAN's temporary authorization and temporary site through 5-4-71. April 30, 1971 FCC extended KVAN's temporary authorization and temporary site through 7-2-71. June 29, 1971 FCC extended KVAN's temporary authorization and temporary site through 10-1-71. September 30, 1971 FCC extended KVAN's temporary authorization and temporary site through 1-1-72. By Dec 1971 KVAN had opened a sales office in "The Myler Building" at 314 S.W. 9th Ave. in Portland. December 27, 1971 FCC extended KVAN's temporary authorization and temporary site through 4-1-72. By January 1972 KVAN programmed Religious 6 to 11am. Progressive Rock 11 to 5pm and Public Affairs 6 to 11am Saturdays.
By 1972 KVAN slogans were: "K-Van, The Mono Maniacs." (referring to the D.J.'s) and "K-Van, Back to Mono." The Big B.A. and contestant directions: "Regarding the studio we would tell winners coming to the station to take a right at The St. Johns Dog Motel. The Gun Club had a Wednesday night skeet shoot outside the studio window, guns going off during the broadcast." It's verified! Was called "Family Trap Shoot" every Wednesday evening, all August & September 1970. There were six more FCC temporary extensions in 1972-73. Finally on June 28, 1973 the FCC grew tired of this and issued a temporary authorization through out 1973.
On March 15, 1972 the FCC announced that Wallace E. Johnson, Broadcast Bureau Chief recommended to FCC Hearing Examiner Millard F. French that the application of Cathryn C. Murphy for license of KVAN Vancouver, Wash. should be denied. Chief Johnson stated: "In the past, the Commission has been faced with licensees who have been seriously deficient in the operation of their stations and the Commission has also been faced with licensees whose candor has been found wanting. But we can safely say that never in the annals of this Commission has there been a licensee so deficient in the conduct of the affairs of her station as Mrs. Murphy. Nor has there been a licensee so lacking in candor. This total lack of candor by Mrs. Murphy and willingness to submit false statements in order to escape embarrassing inquiry by this agency require the ultimate conclusion that she does not possess the requisite qualifications to be licensee."
The 50 page Recommendation showed that since 1960 Mrs. Murphy had been cited for 133 violations of Commission rules. Mrs. Murphy's attorneys submitted a 27 page proposed Finding and Conclusions. This document suggested Mrs. Murphy had been misled by other individuals. Punishing her for not knowing she made a false report would be senseless and vindictive. In June 1972 K-Van's monthly music survey, showed these slogans: "KVAN Makes AM Radio Worth Listening Too." and "KVAN, Not Just A Service of Records But With A 13 Year Record of Service." This slogan was used to convince the FCC that K-Van did its public service announcements. On September 11, 1972 the FCC announced that Hearing Examiner Millard F. French had come to the same conclusion. He denied license renewal of station KVAN, listing eight instances of "Mrs. Murphy's misconduct: 1. The license renewal application was filed after KVAN's station license had expired. 2. False representations were made about current public affairs and news programs on KVAN. 3. False representations were made about proposed public affairs and news programs on KVAN. 4. An unauthorized change was made in the location of the transmitter. 5. False testimony was given at a hearing about the location of the transmitter. 6. She failed to provide program and operating logs for the station. 7. Misrepresented true facts in an affidavit filed with the commission. 8. Testified falsely regarding the matter at a hearing. After the FCC decision Mrs. Murphy filed for an involuntary assignment of the KVAN license to her mother and conservatrix, Ada C. Brown. In October 1972 Cathryn C. Murphy was listed as President; Ada C. Brown, General Manager; Ada Cragen, (aka Ada C. Brown) Commercial Manager; Robert D. "Bob" Ancheta, Program Director; Cindy Carpenter, Music Director; Samuel P. "Sam" King, News Director & Thomas H. "Tom" Phelan (formerly on KWJJ, KEX, KISN, KPOJ) Chief Engineer. The Big B.A. remembers: "The FCC would stop by all the time and just shake their heads."
On November 24, 1972 the FCC granted involuntary assignment of the KVAN license to Ada C. Brown, conservatrix of the estate of Cathryn C. Murphy, effective on 12-14-72. Mrs. Brown having been a creditor of the station, lending her daughter over $160,000 to continue KVAN operation. A physician's report was the reason for the license change because of Mrs. Murphy's serious illness (alcoholism), she would not be able to accept the responsibilities of conducting a business. "There is no evidence of involvement by Mrs. Brown in the derelictions of KVAN. We do not wish to penalize her efforts to assist her daughter financially. Also, we recognize that the special facts of this case indicate Mrs. Murphy, because of her illness, may not have been totally responsible for her actions. Although the infractions were of a most serious nature, the unusual circumstances in the case justified moderation in our actions." On February 12, 1973 KVAN changed its newspaper listing to: Rock, Blues & Jazz 7am to 5:15pm. Also in about 1973 Gray Frierson Haertig was back as KVAN Chief Engineer.
The Big B.A. remembers Ada Brown: "She lived in the radio station at night, slept in a fold out orange comfy chair, she took sponge baths in the Gun Club, ate at any restaurant she had trade at, drove an old Cadillac. She used to come in the studio when I was on the air telling me not to play Cold Blood because she screamed too much, or war protest songs from Bob Dylan (she pronounced his name as Bob Die Lan). She also said she took out all the Dylan but I was staring at all his albums in the studio when she said that. She was the only sales person and once sold commercials to "Albina Pipe Bending Co." why in the hell would a pipe bender company want to advertise on the radio? She wrote copy on napkins and handed it over to us to read, and often sat in a dark room and typed wearing sun glasses."
On May 24, 1973 Ada C. Brown conservatrix for Cathryn C. Murphy appeared before the FCC en banc to present arguments on the license of KVAN. The FCC concluded on August 20, 1973 "It is further ordered that Ada C. Brown, conservatrix of Cathryn C. Murphy, for station KVAN Vancouver, Wash., is granted subject to the condition that the licensee shall file an appropriate application with the Commission to assign the station license to a qualified assignee without profit within six months of the release of this decision." Also in August 1973 Bob Ancheta moved to KQIV.
On January 14, 1974 the FCC granted KVAN a permit allowing the previous transmitter move five years earlier. On February 22, 1974 KVAN was purchased by The New Broadcasting Corp. (Dr. Howard R. Slobodin, President & General Manager, brother Alan J. Slobodin & Leonard N. Kesselman) for $150,000. (Application 10-73 / FCC granted 2-22-74 / effective 3-31-74). Leonard Kesselman also owned KZON/KXFM Santa Maria, CA & KZEN Seaside, CA. Mr. Kesselman sold his shares to Howard Slobodin in the next couple of years. Howard Slobodin: "We plan innovative programming. We feel the Portland-Vancouver area would appreciate a station which concentrated more on Jazz. So we made some changes in this direction Sunday." April 14, 1974. Additionally Slobodin said, the station would make certain technical changes, with FCC approval, possibly getting a directional north-south contour. Studios and offices will probably be moved to a shopping center. KVAN slogan: "You're Driving Home In Your K-Van." On April 21, 1974 Dr. Clayton (formerly on KTAO & KPFA) began a Jazz program,
Sundays from 4pm to 8pm. By July 1974 Ivan Kafoury was KVAN Sales Manager. On August 9, 1974 KVAN was authorized to begin Pre-Sunrise Authority to operate with low power between 6:00am and local sunrise. On August 19, 1974 the FCC granted KVAN's request to reduce power from 1kw to 500 watts. The original 1956 Collins 20V-1 (aka 20V) transmitter was in need of replacement. By December 1974 KVAN had installed a Request Line: 286-8181. In early 1975 Gray Frierson Haertig (later with KGON) returned for a 3rd time as KVAN Chief Engineer. By April 1975 Bruce Funkhouser (formerly KINK PD) was KVAN Program Director. On April 24, 1975 Portland Trailblazer, Bill Walton became a K-Van Mono Maniac when he debuted a 5 hours show which included Bill reading the news and voicing some commercials. Time permitting he would occasionally do shows. On May 3, 1975 co-owner Howard Slobodin began a Jazz & Blues show Saturday & Sunday's at 7:15pm. Known on the air as "The Jazz Freak" he played albums from his personal collection. By this time Ken Heine was Chief Engineer.
On May 4, 1975 Bob Ancheta "The Big B.A." (back from KQIV) began a Sunday evening program called "Homegrown" at 6pm which featured local bands. On June 11, 1975 KVAN reported to the FCC that it was now operating a new Collins 820D-2 (FCC mentions Collins 820-D1) transmitter installed by Tom Cauthers and Margaret A. "Midge" Cauthers (Tom Cauthers wife) became Office Manager, Receptionist & assistant to Howard Slobodin. Midge would answer phone calls with a Very Sexy "K-Van."
Also in 1975 Gloria (aka Gloria Johnson) (formerly on WBCN, KLOS, KNAC, KQIV) began at KVAN. On October 17, 1975 KVAN presented "Tower of Power with special guest stars REO Speedwagon" 8pm at the Paramount Theatre. Advance tickets $5.50. $6.50 day of show. On October 25, 1975 KVAN presented "An Evening with Bruce Springsteen & The E. Street Band" 8pm at the Paramount Theatre. Advance tickets $5.00. $6.00 day of show. [Actual KVAN Memorandum, undated] Memo to all airstaff:
OK so KVAN doesn't have a bathroom, but you are encouraged to use the one in the gun club down the road. I realize the gun club is infested with rodents and not heated or lighted, but the peeing off of the back porch is becoming a health hazard. Besides, you could get electrocuted, the ground wire to the antenna are back there. Our former engineer mentioned feeling a tingle. I realize this is an inconvenience, but we have no choice in this mater. The County will not let us hook up a bathroom. As always, if you expect to be away from the booth for any length of time, be sure to play a long song. Suggestions include: Mountain Jam - Allman Brothers; Who Do You Love - Quick Silver Messenger Service; Get Ready (Long Version) - Rare Earth; In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida - Iron Butterfly; or just play side-2 of The Beatles, Abbey Road. Turntable #2 has been known to skip! We don't want another incident like last week with Gloria and B.A. to ever happen again. 22 minutes of a record skipping will not help our ratings. As soon as we can hire a new engineer, we will get this problem resolved.
The Management By February 1976 the K-Van Mono Maniacs were: The Big B.A. 6am to 10am; Gloria 10am to 3pm & Mike Waggoner 3pm to Sunset. In Spring 1976 Iris Harrison (formerly on KFMY) began weekends & Freddie Flack (formerly aka Tommy Randall on KONE, KBUB; aka Tommy Jeff Randall on KCBN; aka Tom Randall on KBET, KNEV, KSRN, KBUB; aka Jeff Thomas on KONE, KBZY, KSLM, KGAY MD; aka Charlie Stevens on KISN; aka Jeff Clarke KQIV co-MD, KGON) leaving weekends. In Summer 1976 The Mono Maniacs were: Iris Harrison 6am to 10am; Gloria 10am to 2pm; The Big B.A. 2pm to Sunset. KVAN slogan: "Balloon Powered Radio" (DJ announces after breathing helium).
Ray Bartley remembers: "KVAN's format consisted of a 3x5 card file, where you could dip back into and select songs that fit at that moment. Songs were color coded and had 1 to 4 colored dots signifying the songs HOTness, or stress level (frequency of rotation). In addition to the card file, DJ's would come in before their shifts and select albums from the library and certain cuts from those albums could be added into the rotation. It was a GREAT format and compared to what there is today, it was wide open!"
On August 19, 1976 the FCC granted KVAN a construction permit to build a $175,000 four tower array, so KVAN could begin broadcasting at night. The 5kw directional facility would be built on 10 acres in Evergreen, (Parkside) Wash. On September 17, 1976 KVAN announced administrative and sales offices were moved to the 32nd floor of the "First National Tower" building, Suite 3231 at 1300 S.W. 5th Ave. in Portland. In Summer 1976 Mike Waggoner left for Seattle. In late Summer 1976 Gloria (aka Gloria Johnson KGON APD/MD) also left. By October 1976 Bob Ancheta was Program Director again, doing afternoons. In October 1976 Andy Brown (formerly on WZTA, WLVR, WSAN, KUPL AM/FM) began weekend air work and was acting KVAN Chief Engineer.
In October 1976 Les Friedman (formerly on KWAX, KFMY, KZEL) began mornings on KVAN. In late November 1976 Iris Harrison left. The K-Van on air schedule changed to: Les Friedman 7am to Noon & The Big B.A. Noon to 4:45pm. In January 1977 "Sleepy" John Cuthbertson (formerly on KZEL) became Music Director. In about January 1977 Andrew L. "Andy" Brown was officially given the title Chief Engineer. By February 1977 KVAN News was heard at 7:15am, 8:15am, 12:15pm & 4:15pm.
In March 1977 Iris Harrison returned briefly to weekends, then jumped to KGON in the same month. In Spring 1977 Mono Maniacs were: Les Friedman 6am to 10am; Sleepy John (later on KGON, KQFM) 10am to 3pm; The Big B.A. 3pm to Sunset. By August 1977 KVAN News was heard at 6:50am, 12:15pm & 6:15pm. On September 1, 1977 Cathryn C. Murphy died at age 65 in San Mateo, CA. In September 1977 Nancy Jackson became a newscaster. On November 11, 1977 KVAN began 24 hour operation with nights from Evergreen (Parkside) WA. A Continental Electronics 316F transmitter using 5kw directional array at 15507 N.E. 34th St. Andy Brown remembers: "The four towers were aligned East-West with protections in three directions." Daytime broadcasting continued at K-Van's 1kw non-directional transmitter site at 11197 N. Portland Rd. Studios at Smith Lake were shut down and moved to new studios at the night transmitter site in Evergreen WA.
The new schedule of Mono Maniacs included: Les Friedman 6am to 10am; Paul Mitchell 10am to 3pm; The Big B.A. 3pm to 7pm; Lee Abrahms 7pm to midnight; Andy Brown 12am to 6am; Ed Hepp (formerly Ed Mitchell on KRLA, KFRC; aka Ed Hepp on KMPX, KSAN, KMYR PD, KQIV, KGON) was doing weekends along with Bill Glass. Midge Cauthers became the daytime transmitter operator at the Smith Lake site in addition to being Office Manager. Andy Brown remembers: "Lee Abrahms was a tall lanky fellow whose real name was Jay Nordlund. Howard talked him into calling himself Lee Abrahms after the famous rock radio consultant. Jay almost quit before he started, over this name." Les Friedman remembers additionally: "Lee Abrahms was not only named after the rock radio consultant by Howard Slobodin but actually to stick it to KGON who had recently hired the real Lee Abrams to consult their format change. Slobodin, in his inimical way thought it was a hoot that someone might think the real Abrams was consulting KGON during the day and doing evenings for us. I recall some heated words between KGON management and Slobodin about the naming."
When K-Van began 24 hours Lester M. "Les" Friedman became News Director & Paul Mitchell was made Music Director. Additionally (In this time period I'm guessing) Robert D. "Bob" Ancheta was named Station Manager. Format described as A.O.R. (Album Oriented Rock) or Progressive Rock with Blues & Jazz dominate programming. KVAN local news was heard at 5:45am, 6:45am, 9:00am. News Blimps at 12:15pm & 6:15pm. Side note: The Evergreen studios are now "Eastside Baptist Church".
In February 1978 The Mono Maniacs were: Les Friedman 6am to 10am; Dave Lee 10am to 3pm; Valerie Stefan (formerly on KAGO) 3pm to 7pm; "The Cookie Lady" 7 to midnight & Andy Brown midnight to 6am. In March 1978 Andy Brown left to later become KMJK CE, KATU EME. By June 1978 "Robert "Bob" Gordon was Sales Manager. On June 20, 1978 KVAN began weekly broadcasts of local musicians, with the debut of the program "Live From The Rock Creek Tavern" Tuesday nights at 10pm. In June 1978 The Big B.A. split for KGON. Les Friedman remembers: "When BA left he was Station Manager. Howard Slobodin offered me that title but I declined and asked to be named Head Wrangler instead (it seemed more fitting)."
In late July 1978 David L. "Dave" Bischoff (formerly with KOIN AM/FM; later KYTE AM/FM/KLLB/KRCK CE, KKCW CE, KEX/KKRZ, KPAM/KVAN/KKAD/KKOV CE) Chief Engineer. By 1978 The Mono Maniacs were: Les Friedman 6am to 10am; Dave Lee 10am to 3pm; Valerie Stefan 3pm to 7pm; Bill St. James (formerly KBCQ PD, KQFM PD) 7pm to midnight; Ron Smith midnight to 6am. On September 23, 1978 Valerie Stefan was married, becoming Valerie Ring (later on KINK, KKCW, KMGE, KMJK-FM, KKRZ, KVMX, KEX/KPOJ/KKCW/KRVO) on the air as well. On October 25, 1978 "Live From The White Eagle Cafe" debuted at 10pm. In November 1978 KVAN local news was heard at 2:15am, 4:30am, 6:55am & News Blimps at 3:15am, 12:15pm & 6:15pm. By November 1978 Gilles de la Tourette was Program Director; Tyronne Davis, News Director; Ron Smith, Chief Engineer; Margaret A. "Midge" Cauthers (later with KARO & KAAR) Commercial Manager & Ike Teter, Promotion Manager. And KVAN's new Request Line was: 222-5826.
On June 8, 1979 it was announced KVAN was sold to Patten Communications Corp. (Myron P. Patten, President) for $967,725. FCC approval on 10-24-79. Effective on 12-20-79. Patten Communications owned: KLNT/KLNQ Clinton IA, WMAD Sun Prairie WI, WKHM/WJOX Jackson MI, WMPX Midland MI, WQXQ Daytona Beach FL & WNJY Riviera Beach FL. Patten Communications Corp. was an automobile Ad Agency located in Detroit, MI. By November 1979 Bruce Taylor was 7pm to midnight. In November 1979 Ray Bartley (formerly on KOHI) began weekends midnight to 6am. On January 1, 1980 John Harper (formerly WKAT SM) became News Director and remembers: "The station was owned by the Patton Advertising Agency in Detroit, Michigan...a true absent owner and they had no clue what was going on at the station (KAR Radio) an therefore had local management in Portland who had no clue on how to run a local radio station on a limited budget."
On Monday January 8, 1980 the K-Van Mono Maniacs were no more. The Format was changed to Top 40. Les Friedman (later KKSN ND) remembers: "On my last day at KVAN there was a huge blizzard that struck Vancouver, WA. The new air staff had arrived from Florida the night before and were all stranded at the studios for at least 24-hours until they could dig their convertibles and Camaros out of the snow, which must have been about 2-feet or more deep. I got a ride in from my house, about 3 miles away, from a listener on his snowmobile. Fitting end." Ray Bartley remembers the format transition: "In the course of a weekend KVAN went from playing Elvis Costello, The Police, Bob Marley, Led Zeppelin, etc. to playing Barbra Streisand, Kenny Rogers The Bee Gees, etc. People freaked out! KVAN had a very loyal following. The station at the time was located in a grove of trees located in what was then a farm-rural area. I was working a weekend night, and had forgotten to lock the door. A car pulled up and in walked a group of very pissed off, and drunk Mono Maniac listeners, demanding we stop playing the Top 40 crap. I was able to appease them and continue playing the crap, without breaking format."
Ray Bartley remembers the K-Van library: "The fate of KVAN's amazing record library. Word got out to the Car Radio staff that the new owners were going to clear out the albums by hauling them off to the dump! Most of the DJ's managed to make off with a few of them before they were dumped. Working nights, I had planned to try to snag the incredible collection of comedy albums. There were probably over 300 of them from Carlin, to Pryor, Firesign Theater, Lampoon, you name it. I was beaten to the punch though by another member of the staff."
On January 18, 1980 KVAN became KARO. Call letter slogan: "Car Radio 1480." On January 31, 1980 the FCC approved the license name change to: Patten Broadcasting-KARO, Inc. effective February 15, 1980. KARO slogan: "You know what our friends call us? Our friends call us Car!" Ron Eric Taylor, Program Director for about 2 or 3 weeks. Then Bwana Johnny (formerly on KJR, KYA, KGB, WWDJ, WFUN, KLOG; aka Dick Simms KISN MD; aka Dick Kilpatrick on KGW; aka Dick Johnson on K103) became Acting P.D. until Joe Nasty (formerly on KTNQ) arrived to become Program Director & Kelly McCrae, Music Director.
By March 1980 the Car Radio Jocks were: Bwana Johnny with John Harper news 6am to 10am; Bruce Taylor 10am to 2pm; Joe Nasty (formerly on KTNQ, KOPA, KITY) 2pm to 6pm; Kelly McCrae (formerly on KQIV; aka J.K. McCrae on KYAC; aka Jay McCrae KUIK MD, KGAR; aka Kelly McCrae KLOG MD) 6 to 10pm; John Windus (formerly on KLYK, KLOG) 10pm to 2am; Ray Bartley (later on KLOG MD, KUKN) 2am to 6am. Duke Blazer (later aka John Meissner on KLOG, KCYX, KOHU; aka Art Stanly on KAAR) was on weekends.
By April 1980 Peter Gayton was Sales Manager. On May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens erupted. Due to the proximity of the volcano and the eminent danger it created, the FCC granted KARO an STA (Special Temporary Authority) to broadcast at 1kw non-directional nights from KARO's Smith Lake studio & transmitter site (11197 N. Portland Rd.) for a two year period. KARO could now broadcast at night even though the station was supposed to protect KRED Eureka, CA. The Evergreen WA site was shutdown permanently. The towers were situated on ground that was unsuitable for radio signal conductivity, it was said.
Dave Bischoff, Chief Engineer remembers: "KARO being geographically the closest radio station to Mt. St. Helens...of course this was a joke. There was only one incident where ash was sucked into the 5kw Continental...knocking it was really nothing...just clean it out...move on. It was enough however to get things rolling on some kind of weird FAST TRACK! It was one of the fastest STA's I ever saw that shot through. Anyway, that was the worst ash fall here. I can remember ripping across the Interstate Bridge. The ash was coming down in brown clumps...and there was this weird brown fog...and the taste of it. This was Real Radio."
By August 1980 Gloria Feves was Promotion Director. KARO ID slogan: "Car Radio 1480 is KARO Vancouver. Your Continuous Music Station." Request lines, Portland: 286-3630. Vancouver: 256-7757. In August 1980 Greg Fabos (later KCNR AM/FM GM, KSLM/KSKD GM, KSLM owner) became Vice-President & G.M. On August 25, 1980 KARO presented Seafood Mama & R.W. Stone, 6:15pm at Civic Stadium, before The Beavers game. KARO slogan: "Sports Car 1480."
On September 25, 1980 the FCC granted KARO permission to move its nighttime transmitter site location to the Northeast end of Government Island, Oregon. By November 1980 Jo Justice was Commercial Manager. By November 1980 The Car Radio Jocks were: Bwana Johnny with John Harper news 6am to 9am; John Windus 9am to Noon; Beau Rafferty, Noon to 3pm; Joe Nasty 3pm to 6pm; Kelly McCrae 6am to 10pm; Dan Packard (formerly on KLOG) 10pm to 2am & Mike Scott (formerly on KLOG; later aka Mike Mondo on KARO; aka Mike West on KWJJ) 2am to 6am. Joe Nasty would occasionally change his persona on Saturday nights to "Wolfgang Jock."
By December 1980 KARO had moved its executive offices to 117 S.W. Front Ave. in Portland. On March 11, 1981 KARO was turned down by Multnomah County, Hearing Officer, Paul Norr to build four 172 foot towers on Government Island. The decision was made because of the impact it would have on wildlife, as well as wildlife habitat. Plus the low altitude needed for air space near Portland International Airport. In February 1981 Joe Nasty (later KTFM PD, KTNQ, KPWR, KPOW) left KARO and Bwana Johnny became Program Director. Also in February 1981 John Harper left to become WXYZ AOM & later WMEL Owner & President & Dan Packard became News Director with Beau Rafferty, Production Manager & John Windus, P.S.A. Director.
Beginning on March 9, 1981 The Car Radio Jocks were: Bwana Johnny with Dan Packard news 6am to 10am; Dan Packard -DJ- (later on KUIK, KMJK, KYTE, KJR, KBSG, KWJJ; aka Timmy T. on KXL-FM; aka Freddy Chrysler on KB101) 10am to Noon; John Windus (later KUIK PD, KXL, KCNR/KKLI, KXYQ, KWJJ-FM, KSWB/KVAS/KKEE/KULU/ KCRX PD (later additions KAST AM-FM PD), KYSN/KAAP/KWWW/KZPH/KWWX OM, KKRV/KWIQ PD, KPQ AM-FM/KWWW/ KAAP/KYSN/KWWX/KWNC/KZNW OM) Noon to 4pm; Beau Rafferty 4pm to 8pm; "Crazy" Kelly McCrae (later on KSLM, KYTE; aka Jay McCrae on K103; aka Kelly McCrae on KCNR-FM, KWJJ-FM) 8pm to 1am; Dan Maher 1am to 6am. By this time KARO was issuing a music survey "1480 KAR TUNES".
On March 25, 1981 KARO became KAAR. Call letter meaning: "All American Radio." Slogans: "The All American. All the Music you can handle." Plus KAAR continued using the slogan "Car Radio". It's said that the call letters were changed because it was being associated with Karo Syrup! By April 1981 KAAR had moved its executive offices to "The Governor Building" at 408 S.W. 2nd Ave. in Portland.
On May 6, 1981 the KAAR jocks voted to be represented by AFTRA (American Federation of Television & Radio Artists, union) AFTRA in a statement mentioned improvements in working conditions: "The studios where the 'air-personalities' work, has no running water or bathroom facilities in the building. The company provides "bottled" water and an out-door "portable" restroom. The grounds are poorly lighted at night and the surrounding lawn area is seldom maintained. Tall grass that surrounds the area, once dried out, may create a serious fire hazard." KAAR owner Patten Communications Corp. answered: "They are in financial difficulties and are operating the radio station at a loss." KAAR owner refused to negotiate. At midnight on July 1, 1981 KAAR jocks went on strike. KAAR offices were picketed that day. On July 4, 1981 picketing moved to the KAAR studio and transmitter site. Nothing was ever settled.
The Car Radio Jocks were: Bwana Johnny 6am to 10am; Beau Rafferty (formerly on KMJK) 10am to 2pm; Jay Richards 2pm to 6pm; Ray Deo 6pm to midnight & Art Stanly (aka John Meissner later on KLOG, KOHI, KLIQ, KQRR, KERR, KNLF, KUKN, KBLG, KYYA, KLYC ND, KMAS ND, WNBZ SD, WYZY, KMHK, KCTR, KBYZ, KLXX, KACL, WMEL OM, KROR, KXPN, KHAS, KKPR) midnight to 6am. By November 1981 the Car Radio Jocks were: Beau Rafferty 6am to 10am, Bwana Johnny (later KB101 MD, KSND, KZEL, KODZ PD, KKBR) 10am to 2pm; Larry Deyoe (formerly on KBPS) 2pm to 6pm & Jim Ryan (formerly aka Jim Maass on KLIQ, KBZY, KMCM; aka Captain Jim on KCYX; aka Jim "The Big Ragu" Maass & KGW APD) Saturday & Sunday nights 6pm to midnight.
By December 1981 Beau Rafferty was Music Director & Robert E. "Rob" Marssdorf, Commercial Manager. On February 20, 1982 KAAR was off the air for two days when heavy rains caused high water to short out KAAR's transformer station. In early 1982 KAAR moved studios to 6301 N.E. Highway 99 in the Hazel Dell district of Vancouver. The building was originally built as a "7-Eleven" store. New request lines were: Vancouver: 696-1480 & Portland: 228-1480. On March 1, 1982 KAAR debuted "Heartline" hosted by Huggy Hart (Dave Edgmon). This lonely hearts talk show was heard 11pm to 1am Tuesday's through Saturday's. On August 6 & 7, 1982 nationally known talk show host Bill Ballance did two live shows from KAAR studios from 9am to Noon. "The Bill Ballance Show" a female oriented talk show had been heard on KAAR since May 1982 on tape. Ballance did his shows from KFMB. On November 1, 1982 KAAR debuted Portland area's only AM - PM sports talk show. "The Northwest Sports Beat" hosted by Chuck McKeen (formerly on KROC AM-TV, KMCM ND & SD) & Greg Barton was heard weekdays 7am to 9am & 6pm to 9pm. In 1982 Alfred C. "Al" Emrich (former KWLK AM/FM CM, KLIQ AM/FM, KGAR PM) was Asst. Sales Manager. On November 5, 1982 KAAR's license name changed to Patten Broadcasting-KAAR, Inc. Tetry Goger was General Manager; Robert "Bob" Meyer (formerly on KGAR) Program Director; Steve Meredith (formerly on KGAR) News Director; Byron K. Swanson (KISN CE & DJ Johnny Dark, KPAM AM/FM CE, later KUPL AM/FM CE, KEX/KKRZ CE) Chief Engineer & Donna-Mae Shyduik, Sales Manager.
On February 14, 1983 KAAR switched format to "Golden Hits" of the past 30 years. "The Northwest Sports Beat" continued 4pm to 6pm weekdays. Alfred C. "Al" Emrich became General Manager, Robert "Bob" Meyer continued as Program Director and mornings. Robert T. Fletcher (formerly on KEED, KOMB, KBAR, KFLY, KGAY, KRXL, KLOO, KWAY GM, aka Bob Duke KGAR PD&GM) became Sales Manager. Also in February 1983 Dan Dubay began weekends. KAAR slogans: "Car Radio", "Classic Car Gold", "K-double-A-R", "Radio The Way It Used To Be". By June 1983 Bob Coffee was doing weekend overnights. In June 1983 Roger Smith (simultaneously KMHD MD) became a weekender, dong a split shift Saturdays, 6am to noon & 6pm to midnight. On June 20, 1983 John Cole began a late night talk show on KAAR weeknights.
In July 1983 The Car Radio Jocks were: Dan Alexander (formerly aka Danny Daniels on KOHI SD) 6am to 10am with Craig Batterson, News Director; traffic from Tony Martinez (later aka Officer Tony on KKRZ, KPTV) & Captain Clay (Gordon, formerly on KYTE/KLLB). Ric Elgin (formerly on KYXI, KOIN-TV, KGAR, KOHI, KRDR MD) was middays. Toni Smith, afternoons. Michael Jack Kirby (formerly on KBOO, KKSN, KWIP, KKSN, KCYX) began as a weekender but was moved within a week to 2pm to 6pm weekdays, 6 days a week.
Dan Alexander remembers "Radio Bingo" on KAAR: "Although I have tried to repress my memories of Radio Bingo, it did exist. I would sign on at 5:30, I think, and work until 9. Then, for an hour, we would read bingo numbers. Agonizing. It seems like Ric did it first, then I was given the wonderful opportunity. I do remember having to go do a bingo remote in N.E. Portland. Clearly the highlight of my illustrious career."
By mid 1983 Ric Elgin was Program Director. Dale Hanson (aka Dale Diamond on KOHI) was Sales Manager. By September 1983 James "Jim" Caskey was Sales Manager. In September 1983 "The Preacher" Pat Pattee (formerly on KCAP, KWIK, KOIL, KISN, KLSC; later on KKUL) began on KAAR afternoons. Also in September 1983 Michael Jack Kirby became Program Director and moved to middays. By October 1983 Nancy Condray was with KAAR. In Fall 1983 the Car Radio "Disc Jerkeys" (from an ad) Steve Young with Craig Batterson, news 6am to 10am; Michael Jack Kirby 10am to 2pm; Pat Pattee, 2pm to 6pm & Earl Ray 6pm to 10pm. Also in Fall 1983 Dan Alexander moved into sales, became Sales Manager in early 1984.
On February 2, 1984 KAAR began 24 hour operation with its Oldies format, except for Jerry Dimmitt (formerly on KBVM Lancaster PD, KUYY, KGIL, KOOS, KMCM CM, KLIQ AM/FM, KKEY, KYXI, KAYO, KTNT, KMO) talk skow, aka "The Dimmitt" which ran 10pm to 1am weeknights. By this time "The Wolfman Jack Show" was heard on tape Saturday evenings and KAAR had affiliated with the ABC Contemporary & Direction networks, plus an affiliation with CBS' "Radioradio" network.
In February 1984 Car Radio Jocks were: Kelly Smith (later on KEX) & Craig Batterson news 6am to 10am; Michael Jack Kirby 10am to 2pm; Pat Pattee 2pm to 6pm; Dan Dubay or Roger Smith or 6pm to 10pm, 7 days a week; Jerry Dimmitt talk show (later on KXL, KKEY PD, KVAN-1550, KXYQ) 10pm to 1am & "The Frenchman" Kim Fuqua (later aka Ron Leonard on WINC; aka The Frenchman, Kim Fuqua on KLVS, KBSP) 1am to 6am. Daniel L. "Dan" Dubay was KAAR Production Manager. In July 1984 Diana Rodriguez began overnights 1am to 6am. On April 2, 1984 the FCC granted KAAR 2.5kw night power, using a three tower directional array from its transmitter site at Smith Lake. Daytime power would remain at 1kw non-directional.
On September 4, 1984 KAAR moved studios to "The Tower Mall" at 5411 East Mill Plain Blvd. in Vancouver. Al Emrich explained: "The broadcasting company is leaving a larger space in Hazel Dell to gain visibility at The Tower Mall." Suite B-4 was 1,295 square feet with the studio facing the mall. Then Jocks went on the air they'd place their name card in the window for listeners who could hear KAAR on a speaker in the mall. At times, some of the businesses would ask KAAR to turn it down. New hourly ID: "From The Tower Mall...This Is KAAR Vancouver, Portland." By saying that line, Car Radio's studio and office space was rent free.
Once again the 1480 was without a restroom. Jocks were forced to use The Tower Mall public restroom, which was quite a distance (DJ's running down the mall). Plus you'd have to leave the KAAR sliding glass door into the mall unlocked! Anyone shopping in the mall could have walked in, locked the door and taken over! KAAR furnished Jocks with a portable radio they could take to the restroom to make sure the cart (music cartridge) wasn't eaten during the journey. On September 14, 1984 KAAR presented "Ricky Nelson Live in Concert" at 8pm at the Rock Palace (64th & Foster). Advance tickets $14. $15 at the door.
In September 1984 the Car Radio Jocks were: Earl Ray 6am to 10am; Michael Jack Kirby 10am to 2pm; Pat Pattee 2pm to 6pm; Dan Dubay 6pm to 10pm; Roger Smith 10pm to 2am; Todd Tyler (simultaneously with family owned KKEY as producer/eng.) 2am to 6am & Sundays 6am to Noon. By November 1984 Earl R. Cogdill was Chief Engineer & Len Sinkus, General Sales Manager. ABC's Contemporary & Direction Networks were dropped but hourly news continued (taped) from CBS Radioradio. In January 1985 the Car Radio Jocks were: Dan Dubay 6am to 10am; Michael Jack Kirby 10am to 2pm; Pat Pattee 2pm to 6pm; Roger Smith 6pm to 10pm; Diana Rodriguez 10pm to 2am; Todd Tyler 2am to 6am & Sundays 6am to Noon. In March 1985 Dan Dubay (later on KYTE AM/FM, KMJK/KMXI, KKSN AM/FM, KLTW/KQAK) left KAAR but would fill-in occasionally through June 1985.
On April 6, 1985 KAAR became the 2nd station in the Nation to join the new "Radio Aahs" children's (taped) network, headquartered in Marina Del Ray, CA. (1st station was WEXI Jacksonville, FL). The children's programming began at 6am daily, running until 8pm. Announcers on the network were from 8 to 16 years old. Radio Aahs featured interviews and stories between music and trivia for children under 12. Golden Oldies were played between 8pm & 1am and all weekends. Pat Pattee left. Michael Jack Kirby moved 8pm to 1am. As time went on, less & less hours were devoted to Radio Aahs. The network was not sending enough programming, so repeats began. On May 26, 1985 Craig Adams (formerly aka Craig Foster KCYX MD) began weekends Noon to 6pm. Slogan: "Good Times & Great Oldies." On June 8, 1985 KAAR began broadcasting Friday nights live from "Van's Drive-In" at 15350 N.E. Sandy Blvd. from 7pm to 9pm.
Michael Jack Kirby remembers Radio Aahs: "Al was so disgusted by the lack of interest and the ad revenue which had fallen off to almost nothing, that he came into the booth on a Friday evening (6-7-85) and asked how quickly I could get the oldies format back up and running. Since we'd still been doing it all along on nights and weekends, I told him we could start immediately and I knew all the jocks would be very happy about the move back to oldies. The Radio Aahs shows that had played that afternoon and early evening were the last to be aired." On June 9, 1985 KAAR announced in print, it had scrapped Radio Aahs. Al Emrich: "We were being successful with the oldies thing, and we made a mistake when we changed." KAAR was on the air playing Oldies 5:30am to 1am daily. By this time Leonard "Len" Sinkus was Sales Manager.
By July 1985 KAAR was carrying traffic reports from Dan Osterman, of "Northwest Informational Networks." On July 24, 1985 KAAR switched to daytime hours while work continued on building its new 2.5kw directional three tower night array. (Towers 166 feet each). KRED Eureka had successfully argued to the FCC on dropping KAAR's STA (Special Temporary Authority) which was issued 5 years earlier. The KAAR Jocks were Johnny Diamond 5:30 to 10am; Diana Rodriguez (later on KGW) 10am to 2pm; Michael Jack Kirby (later on KYTE, KXYQ-FM, KKRZ, KISM MD, KFFM PD, aka M.J. on KXJM, aka Michael Kirby on KXL) 2pm to 6pm; Roger Smith 6pm to sunset. Todd Tyler Sundays 6am to Noon & Craig Adams weekends Noon to 6pm.
By August 1985 KAAR format was described as: hits of the 1950's & 1960's. In mid September 1985 Steve Feder (formerly WFMT CM, KATR/KZAM) became General Manager & General Sales Manager. Al Emrich became The Tower Mall Manager. On September 18, 1985 Robert D. "Bob" Ancheta (aka The Big B.A., formerly KVAN PD, KQIV, KGON PM) returned as Program Director on 1480KHz for a third time. John G. Hugill (formerly on KWIP, KYTE/KRCK; simultaneously on KKRZ, KCYX PM) became Music Director. Todd S. Weagant (aka Todd Tyler) became Chief Engineer. Former C.E., Earl Cogdill left to work at KEDO. The Car Radio Jocks were: The Big B.A. 6am to 10am; Kathy Lynn 10am to 3pm; Roger Smith 3pm to 7pm; John Hugill 7 to midnight. KAAR Slogan: "Good Time Rock & Roll."
On November 30, 1985 the weekend schedule changed. Todd Tyler, Saturday mornings 6am to 10am; Tom Costello (later KMHD GM) 10am to 3pm Saturdays; Craig Adams, Saturdays & Sundays 3pm to Sunset and later to 8pm; Brien Morris (simultaneously on KXL, KMJK-FM, KWJJ, KSKD, KCNR-FM, KXYQ, KKLI, KUIK, KRDR, KPDQ, KYTE, KSGO traffic) Saturday nights 8pm to midnight and Sunday mornings 6am to 11am; Dan Alexander returned (simultaneously with KYTE/KRCK sales; later KKCW NSM, WMXL/WLAP GSM) 10am to 3pm Sundays. On December 20, 1985 KAAR began night operation from its Smith Lake transmitter site with 2.5kw directional. Continuing with 1kw non-directional daytime.
Studios continued from The Tower Mall. Todd Weagant remembers: "The transmitter, phaser, towers and ATU's were all from the former 5kw site in east Clark County recycled. The transmitter was a 5kw Continental 316F and the Collins 820D-2 was still in place as a back-up. It's interesting that the original CP was for 2.5kw both day and night using four towers, two different patterns day and night. In fact there were four ten foot piers built for the towers and ground systems installed on each before the decision was made to stick with 1kw non-directional days. The 1kw non-DA actually covers a larger population area than the predicted 2.5 daytime pattern." KAAR hours were 6am to midnight.
There was a metamorphose after KAAR switched to directional night pattern. The format also switched from Oldies to Classic Rock. The Big B.A. remembers: "It was time for a change. Back in the KVAN 1480 days we were different and attracted an audience. KAAR could not compete with the stations already playing oldies with stronger signals. We changed to classic rock before anybody else, became rebels and got noticed. It was a blast." The Car Radio Jocks were: Kathy Lynn 6am to 10am; Roger Smith 10am to 3pm; The Big B.A. 3pm to 7pm; John Hugill 7 to midnight, with the weekend staff intact. In January 1986 Steve Michaels began as a commercial copy writer for Lee Grover, KAAR Sales Manager. On February 23, 1986 KAAR began running Mike Harvey's "Super Gold" from syndicator Transtar, Saturday's at 6pm.
In March 1986 KAAR officially changed its format to Classic Rock and the jocks were then dubbed "The Mono Maniacs," reborn! Slogans: "1480 Rock, Because Everything Else Sucks!" "1480 Rock, The Radio Station That Crushes KGON!" "1480 Rock, Because Nobody Wants To Listen To A Bunch of Pansy Ass Wimp Music!" On April 13, 1986 "The Doctor Demento Show" (formerly on KGON, KQFM, KKSN aka Barret E. "Barry" Hansen KRRC PD/GM) began airing on KAAR Sundays from 10pm to midnight, from Westwood One. About this time Steve Michaels began Sunday mornings 6am to 10am.
On April 29, 1986 "1480 Rock" broadcasts were interrupted at about 8:35pm and again after 11pm by a pirate station. The intruder calling himself "Captain Midnight". The static-filled interruptions lasted about 10 to 15 seconds and happened again the following night at about 7:30pm and again after 10pm. Captain Midnight criticized the quality of radio broadcasting in the area. He announced: "I may, or may not be back. Nightie night." KGW-TV News carried the story. This all happened after a video Captain Midnight, two days earlier in a national story, had broken into the HBO signal with a printed message against Home Box Office's plan to scramble its satellite signal. "1480 Rock" denied the interruptions were a gimmick. The Big B.A. responded at the time: "It was apparently a pirate broadcaster of some sort, overriding the station's signal. It is technically possible to do, and it may be that we are being picked on because of our lower power than other AM stations in the area." The FCC Portland Field Office looked into this but the pirate station was never found. ARrrrrrrrrrr!
The Big B.A. remembers: After hearing about the Captain Midnight incident on HBO, I decided to pull a publicity stunt and try and get our little radio station some free publicity with the help of John Hugill & engineer Todd. We faked a tape of Captain Midnight breaking into our signal and called the media. KGW-TV showed up first and aired the story but after a few days we caught wind the FCC was going to investigate and fessed up it was a farce. It got people talking and that is what you have to do at times to get noticed with no budget for promotion. Nobody was hurt or killed during this stunt, do not try this at home." John Hugill remembers: "Captain Midnight was actually the voice of Lonnie Kinser (who later did KAAR sales) recorded off the hot line. I produced the parts adding static and phasing. I just slammed them in a song on the air." KAAR G.M. Steve Feder issued this: STAFF MEMO RE: CAPT. MIDNIGHT SPOOF OVER OUR AIRWAVES QUESTIONABLE MATERIAL SUCH AS THE CAPTAIN MIDNIGHT SPOOF WHICH OCCURRED A FEW NIGHTS AGO IS NOT TO BE AIRED IN THE FUTURE WITHOUT FIRST MAKING MANAGEMENT OF KAAR RADIO AWARE. IF ANY OCCURRENCES SUCH AS THIS HAPPEN IN THE FUTURE, THE PARTY OR PARTIES INVOLVED WILL BE SUSPENDED IMMEDIATELY! THIS MEMO IS TO BE READ AND INITIALED BY ALL FULL AND PART-TIME MEMBERS OF THE KAAR RADIO STAFF. STEVE FEDER GENERAL MANAGER
After we signed the original memo, everyone was given a copy. The undated memo on KAAR stationery is a nice souvenir of the "1480 Rock" days. It features all of the air personality signatures. Out of the ordinary things continued to occur with 1480 Rock.
It was in this time period KAAR's old G.M., now "The Tower Mall" manager Al Emrich had decided to remove all of The Tower Mall men's room stalls because of "sexual hanky panky" going on in the "Head". Remember, jocks had to run down the mall to use the public restroom between records. Now it was even more awkward! You quickly learned the only toilets equipped with toilet paper were the ones built into the restroom walls. The others were off limits but there were no warning signs for the novice! It was kinda fun to see people's faces when they first walked in. Some were so startled or shy, they walked right out! And the others, watching them choose one of the middle thrones, knowing they'd sealed their fate. John Hugill: "I remember Joe Cassavetti doing the legal I.D. as "Live from The Tower Mall where the bathroom has no stalls, this is KAAR Vancouver/Portland." and Steve Feder losing his mind and nearly canning Joe on that spot."
1. In June or July 1986 the entire KAAR staff were evacuated from their studios along with the entire mall, when when a strange odor, overpowered us! Todd Weagant remembers: John Hugill was on the air, Craig Adams was in the back dubbing music to carts. John Hugill remembers: Some kid next door at Bob's Pet Land spiked the refrigerant line of an industrial cooler with an ice pick and the mall filled with ammonia vapor. The fireman told Todd and me "You have to leave" and I said "but I'm doing a show! I CAN'T leave!" (willing to risk my health for rock and roll). Meanwhile over at Bob's Pet Land, birds were dropping like canary's in a coal mine. Todd and I ran and helped rescue most of the animals, splashing through liquid ammonia all over the floor, we grabbed cages and containers and hustled them out doors. The splashing through the liquid was the worst exposure to me personally. I felt pretty ill. The record I played while Todd and I went to the transmitter was Inna-gadda-da-vida.
Todd remembers: John and I grabbed a spare cart machine and the bulk of The Beatles carts and headed to the transmitter site. Craig followed, I got the cart machine set up and a mic with test clips and no board. John remembers: "feeling really dizzy and Todd passing out at the transmitter site." Todd remembers: Hugill and I went back to the studio and ended up being hosed down by the Fire Department in the parking lot." Craig Adams remembers: "John & Todd were having breathing problems after those trips. I played it safe, staying outside. At the time we didn't know what it was or how hazardous it was to breath. Later I was able to go on the air from the transmitter site unaffected, playing mostly The Beatles on one cart machine until B.A. called around 9pm and said: "give it up!"
Meanwhile John & Todd return to The Tower Mall. John remembers: "This all happened around the time of the Captain Midnight affair and, as I understand it, news crews were reluctant to report on the evacuation as it may be "just another stunt" from that little radio station. Can you imagine TV arrives and there is emergency personnel, a Clown (from "Clown Alley", the mall party clown), Rodents and Reptiles, Dogs and Cats, upset Drunks (mall Safeway closed) and DJ's stripped to their britches being hosed down by the Fire Dept. That night footage aired of Todd on oxygen in his boxers being hosed down and loaded into the back of an ambulance."
On June 30, 1986 "1480 Rock" debuted "Nostalgic Nuggets" at Noon. On July 5, 1986 KAAR switched from "Super Gold" to Dick Bartley's "Solid Gold Saturday Night" at 6pm, from United Stations Radio Network. In late July 1986 Tim Underwood (formerly on KACI & simultaneously on KBPS) joined 1480 Rock weekends. In August 1986 Mike Cooley (simultaneously KGON/KSGO CE) became Chief Engineer. Former C.E., Todd Weagant (later on KEZE-FM, KMOK-FM, KCLX) had left to attend Wash. State Univ. Slogans: "K-double-A-R is 1480 Car Radio." "1480 K-double-A-R with 60 minutes of non-stop rock classics." "1480 Car Radio."
In August 1986 The Mono Maniacs were: John Hugill 5:30am to 10am; Roger Smith 10am to 3pm; The Big B.A. 3pm to 7pm & Joe Cassavetti 7pm to midnight. Weekends featured: Rich Craig, Saturday & Sundays 6am to 10am; Tim Underwood, Saturdays 10am to 3pm & Sundays 8pm to 1am; Craig Adams, Saturday & Sundays 3pm to 8pm; Steve Michaels, Saturdays "The 1480 Rock All-Request Show" 8pm to 1am; Brian Morris (later on KXL, KUIK, KSGO, KEX/KKRZ/KKCW/KEWS, KBNP, KVAN-1150, KKSN-FM/KGON/KRSK/KNRK, KGW-TV traffic) Sundays 10am to 3pm. Plus Mark Dornfeld traffic. Gloria Johnson (later on KKSN-FM, KKJZ ND, KXL-FM ND, KGON) would do weekend fill-ins occasionally. Also later on weekends was Hosea Johnson.
On September 6, 1986 KAAR presented "Johnny Limbo & The Lugnuts, The Kingsmen & The Razorbacks In Concert" 2pm to 8pm at The Clark County Fairgrounds. Tickets $10. John Hugill remembers the 1480 Rock vibe: "KAAR The Mono Maniacs was so fun. We were small but mighty. Live Summer broadcasts from a pool at the Clark County Fair. Every live concert presentation BA could finagle. Live bands upstairs and downstairs every Wednesday night at Eli's and more. The creative level was through the roof. Hats off to BA for enabling that level of inspiration."
Robin Banks (formerly aka Bill Van Lom on KPAM-FM; aka Robin Banks on KGON; later on KGON, KNRK) was The Voice of "1480 Rock" recorded slogans and had done occasional KAAR weekend fill-ins, did not like fulltime air work but was on September 20-28, 1986 for The Big B.A. on vacation. As B.A. wrote it in a staff memo: "After months of negotiations Robin Banks and KAAR Radio have come to a mutual agreement to do my show." On October 25, 1986 "1480 Rock" debuted "Rock At The Edge" Saturday nights at 10pm, an hour of new rock releases, sponsored by Everybody's Records. By October Ken Broeffle (simultaneously KPDQ AM/FM C.E., KUIK C.E., later KMJK-FM C.E., ARS - Infinity - CBS Radio-Portland Dir. of Eng., Clear Channel, Asst. Dir. of Eng.) was KAAR backup Engineer.
On November 7, 1986 Steve Feder was named KYTE AM/FM GM (later KAAK GSM, KKZX AM/FM GM, KGON/KFXX VP&GM) and left. Robert D. "Bob" Ancheta became KAAR General Manager and announced the retirement of The Big B.A. as an air personality. On December 29, 1986 "1480 Rock" began airing "Rockline" at 8pm from Global Satellite Network. On January 5, 1987 "1480 Rock" debuted "Explosive Talent Northwest" Mondays at 8pm. The 30 minute program was touted as the "first commercial radio station program of it kind" showcasing local rock talent. Interested bands submitted radio quality reel-to-reel tapes or albums. By this time David Wall was Sales Manager; Deborah Abbe, Office Manager; Tami Olson, Traffic Manager; Kathy Wellington, Dan Osterman & Lonnie Kinser, sales.
On March 27, 1987 Belridge Broadcasting of Portland, Inc. (incorporated on 2-4-87. Rhonda Kramer Green, President & husband Kenneth A. "Kenny" Green, Vice-President) officially took control of KAAR. The Green's had purchased the station on February 14, 1987 for $550,000. Rhonda Kramer had been a DJ on KFOX and was know a traffic reporter for the Green's company "LA Network" which provided traffic reports for 13 Los Angeles area stations including KRLA, KFWB, KDAY, KGIL, KROQ & KMGG. Kenny Green served as the company's accountant. LA Network traded their traffic reports to stations in return for air time. The Green's would follow this policy at KAAR as well. Employees were told they could be paid in lieu of a paycheck with items instead. Do you need a new set of tires?
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On April 5, 1987 The Mono Maniacs of "1480 Rock" gathered in the KAAR studio for one last broadcast beginning a 8pm and all hell broke loose til midnight! Tim Underwood (evening DJ) presided on what was dubbed "The Death of A Radio Station". The 1480 Rock library was even advertised on the show as being sold at Goundhog Records. The Big B.A. announced on the program: "You, Damn, Wimpy FM Radio Stations, Better Start Rockin' and Filling in The Void! This Is Ridiculous!" The last song played was a medley of Rocks songs, John Hugill had spliced together. At midnight Steve Michaels took KAAR past the witching hour, to 24 hour status but now as a board operator only. Calls continued to come in from mad listeners. One irate caller asked if it was ok to burn the transmitter site to the ground! We talked him out of that, a long with starting a protest at The Tower Mall.
1. Bob Ancheta continued as G.M. John G. Hugill became Program Director and Craig Adams, de facto Music Director. John Hugill remembers: Kenny Green's first telephone conversation with me went something like "Hey! You seen the new Playboy? We should get a copy and J*** off to it together." This was on weird dude." In May 1987 John Hugill (later on KMJK, KKSN AM/FM PM, KLTH) forced the Green's to fire him so he could file for unemployment. Terry Donahue (formerly on KLLB, KKRZ) became Program Director.
A very young Scott Lander, just breaking into radio, remembers: I was running the board on a weekday afternoon, Kenny walked into the small studio (with its' view of the food stand in Tower Mall) and said: "Soo, Scotty-how long is your d**k when it's hard?" Needless to say it was awkward. It was soon after that, the checks started bouncing. What an experience!" In May 1987 eight year old Sam Rogoway debuted on KAAR as Little Rockin' "Ricky Rocko" (later on KKRZ, KMXI) weeknights 6 to 8pm on "The Little Ricky Rocko Show". "The Worlds Youngest DJ" was also heard 2pm to 6pm on Saturdays on "The Little Ricky Rocko All Request & Dance Party."
On June 1, 1987 Craig Adams (later on KKSN AM/FM, KLTH) was fired by Rhonda "when she found out, I thought she was nuts! This actually saved me from dealing with bounced checks, which started in June." Also in June 1987 Roger Smith (later on KRDR, KYTE/KESI/KKCY, KPDQ AM/FM PM, KKPZ PM) took off. "I heard checks were starting to bounce, thought I'd better cut my losses and get out of there." On that same day Steve Michaels (later on KBBR, KHSN MD, KOOS, KUIK) also quit! "Payroll checks had started to bounce for a lot of people. Mine, thankfully, never did." About July 1st Tim Underwood (later on KMJK-FM, KSGO/KGON/KFXX) remembers: "I left KAAR during the Kenny Green era when checks started bouncing, morale started plummeting and my desire for un-Green-er pastures prevailed!" In July 1987 Terry Donahue left "being very angry at the Green's, Lander remembers" and Curtis Wilson (formerly on KOHI, KRDR; later on KVIX, KXL) became Program Director.
On July 15, 1987 Michael Burgess wrote in his "This Week" column, Burges Sez: "Recent ship-jumpers at Radio KAAR are muttering about sexual harassment and unpaid wages...." In the first days of August 1987 Scott Lander (later on KXYQ, KKRZ, KBBT-FM, KOTK, KRSK, KXJM, KZMG, KWJJ-FM, KXL/KXJM, KALZ, KSTJ APD/MD, KUPL-FM, KFBW) remembers: "Kenny decided to give me a raise (seriously-yikes) but by that time, the checks had already started bouncing. I quit soon, thereafter." Bob Ancheta remembers early August 1987: "Yes paychecks were bouncing and I was getting the excuse from Rhonda Green that the money exchange to our bank account was accidently sent to Vancouver, B.C., not Vancouver, WA, at that point I knew that was BS and packed up my stuff and left."
On August 10, 1987 a Michigan corporation Gemy, Inc. filed a lawsuit against Belridge Broadcasting of Portland, Inc. for $550,000 promissory note Belridge was in loan default on. Belridge failed to make the July 1987 payment of $4,583. On August 11, 1987 at 3:05pm Portland General Electric pulled the plug. Bob Ancheta (later KGON APD/MD, KKRH, KINK) remembers: "PGE shut off the power at the North Portland transmitter within a week after I left. The manager of the Tower Mall "Al Emrich" caught wind of what was going on and locked the doors. The radio station went back to the original owner Patten Communications Corp. Myron Patten hired me to overlook the facility while trying to sell it. Kenny Green and Rhonda were the weirdest people I ever worked for and I was glad to have it over. I felt bad for everybody who got a bounced check including me."
In January 1988 Christopher H. Bennett Broadcasting Company of Washington, Inc. (Christopher H. Bennett, President & wife Gloria V. Bennett, Secretary/Treasurer) purchased KAAR fixed assets for $475,000. The company owned KRIZ Renton WA. (FCC approval on 4-12-88). On April 26, 1988 KAAR signed back on the air with an Urban Contemporary format with slogan calls "KBMS". Studios were located in "The Postal Building" 510 S.W. Third Ave., Suite 100, in Portland. Leon L. Harris, General Manager & Theodore "Ted" Salter, General Sales Manager. 1480 morning air personality was Carnell Foreman. George Fitz weekday mornings 5am to 6am and on Sunday mornings "The George Fitz Gospel Show" (formerly on YSOL, KBOO) aired 5am to Noon. Slogan: "Soul Radio". Request line: 222-1480.
In June 1988 Christopher H. "Chris" Bennett became General Manager. On July 20, 1988 KAAR became KBMS standing for: "Bennett's Music Station." Slogan: "Portland's Best Music Station." In September 1989 KBMS affiliated with CBS Sports radio. By December 1989 Ron Lee was Program Director & Music Director. In 1990 Johnny Jordan (formerly on KMAI, KIKI, KWAI, KSSK, XHRM, KWAV, WYJB; later on sister KYIZ, KTSX) joined the KBMS air staff, pulling both morning & afternoon drives. By December 1990 Thomas Williams was General Sales Manager & Michael Brown, Chief Engineer.
On January 19, 1991 former KBMS air personality Anthony DuPree Casey died at age 27 from complications of pneumonia. KBMS slogan: "Portland Vancouver's Soul Choice." In 1991 Angela V. Jenkins became KBMS Station Manager, Program Director & Music Director. By December 1991 KBMS had affiliated with the CBS Spectrum Radio Network (CSN, formerly known as CBS Radioradio network). By December 1992 Christopher H. "Chris" Bennett was both KBMS General Manager & General Sales Manager & Richard Wilson (formerly KEX/KKRZ CE) Chief Engineer. In February 1993 KBMS switched to ABC's "The Touch" or "Hits & Oldies" satellite delivered adult "Urban Contemporary" format. On March 14, 1993 Gene R. Johnsick 1956 KRIV 1480kc Camas station founder died at age 73 in Mount Angel.
By November 1993 KBMS studios had moved to the transmitter site at: 11197 N. Portland Rd. KBMS offices were moved to "The Heritage Building" at: 601 Main St., Suite 400 in Vancouver, WA. KBMS slogans: "More Than Just The Same Songs Over And Over, We're Portland's Best Music Station." "KBMS, The More You Listen, The More You Like." In November 1995 KBMS moved to new studios in "The Heritage Building" in Vancouver, WA. Request line: 283-3358. On February 20, 1996 KBMS was knocked off the air for 6 days because of flooding at the Smith Lake tower site where the transmitter was underwater for several days. By September 1996 KBMS slogans were: "The Best Variety of Hits And Oldies." "The Home of Mellow Music At Night."
On April 25, 1997 Kenneth A. "Kenny" Green died at age 65 in Las Vegas (former KAAR co-owner & V.P. 1987). In 2000 KBMS moved studios back to the transmitter site at: 11197 N. Portland Rd. Between October 15 & 22, 2002 KBMS switched satellite formats to ABC's "Solid Gold Soul" network "Where Music Meets Soul!" On January 14, 2004 KBMS switched format back to ABC's "The Touch" network "Today's R&B and Old School" By July 2006 Opio Sokoni had a talk show on KBMS. By November 2006 Angela Jenkins was host of a talk show Sunday mornings 6am to noon.
By 2007 KBMS had affiliated with "News One" radio network, hourly and half hour feeds during daytime talk shows. Syndication from "Reach Media" carrying weekday talk from "The Tom Joyner Morning Show" 3am to 7am. From "Syndication One" talk programs "Warren Ballentine" 7am to 10am & "The Rev. Al Sharpton Show" 10am to 1pm. Switching format to current Rhythm & Blues music mixed with Soul Oldies from "The Touch" network 1pm to 3am. By October 2007 Opio Sokoni was General Manager with Frank Barrow, Operations Manager & Angela V. Jenkins, Program Director, Music Director & Public Service Director.
On July 28, 2008 the FCC fined KBMS $5,600 for main studio violations. The Commission found the main studio locked and unmanned at various times during regular business hours. The agent was told "he would have to make an appointment. The FCC stated "KBMS must be made available to Commission agents during the station's business hours, or at any time it is in operation, and that the KBMS main studio must be accessible to the public during regular business hours to ensure, among other reasons, that the public has access to the KBMS public inspection file."
Slogans: "Celebrating Black Music 365 Days A Year, Right Hear On 1480 KBMS." "The Right Touch, We're Your Station For Today's R&B and Classic Soul." "For The Best Blues & Oldies, Listen To 1480 KBMS." "Playing Today's R&B and Your Memories From Yesterday." "We Play The Best Variety of Hits, 1480 KBMS."
Special Thanks to the following individuals who helped in the writing of this radio history, making it more complete: Bob Ancheta, Ray Bartley, Dave Bischoff, Jim Boland, Andy Brown, Chris Burns, Tom Cauthers, Dan Dubay, Les Friedman, Kim Fuqua, Bob Gallucci, David Gleason, Rob Haas, Gray Frierson Haertig, Paul Hanson, John Harper, Iris Harrison, Dan Hotchkiss, John Hugill, Johnny Jordan, Michael Jack Kirby, Scott Lander, Jim Maass, John Meissner, Steve Michaels, Brien Morris, Joe Nasty, Dan Packard, Valerie Ring, Paul Schindler, Roger Smith, Tim Underwood, Todd Weagant, John Windus.
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References: Billboard mag., Broadcasting mag., Broadcasting Yearbook(s), Camas Public Library, Camas Washougal Post-Record, The Downtowner,, The Los Angeles Times, Multnomah County Library, The Oregon Journal, The Oregonian, pdxradio's KVAN History Page, This Week, Vancouver Community Library, Williamette Week. The first history of 1480 was originally posted on April 13, 2002.
KVAN built the directional array in 1976-77. McClanathan was fired. I was promoted to Chief and retuned the array and phasor under the direction of Jim Kemman from Silliman, Moffet and Kowalski (soon to become ERI). Kemman was a physics guy. He did the Empire State Bldg Master Antenna (the one before 9/11). Then Kowalski came out and we did the full proof of performance (I remember having to drive with my head out the window as Kowalski was a chain smoker). Got zapped in the nuts by electric fences several times walking to his "exact" spots to get a reading. Anyway, KVAN began 24 hour broadcasting November 11, 1977 from the array which was located in Orchards near 164th and 34th. They also relocated the studio to a new building at the Orchards transmitter site where we all helped hook up a two studio set up with a big live performance room that never happened. This turned the old swamp location on N. Portland Road into a 1 kW daytime only site which had to be manned since we didn't have a remote control.
There was a deep null aimed right at Redding. The night license was 5kW DA so there were a lot of areas 7 to 20 miles out that could get a great signal at night, much better than the day, but anyone in the SW null (there were four nulls) had to be really close to not get KRED interference. On Marine Dr. the null was barely a blip. By the time you got to NE Glisan, the null was about 8 - 10 blocks wide. By SE Division, it was 15 blocks or more. The SW and NW nulls were deeper than the SE and NE nulls. The SW null had to deal with co-chaneel KRED, the NW null at first adjacent Kelso, the NE null to Dakota or Montana (don't remember, could have even been eastern WA) and the SE null was just a result of creating the pattern with enough forward gain to put 5mV into enough of Vancouver to pass the requirement. At that time, KVAN was one of only two stations running more night power than day power.
"It's a little vague to me but it seems like KVAN was completely unlistenable south of the towers, as soon as you got to the Columbia River. It looked like they planned to move the same array to Government Island and that would have brought the south contour down to SE Flavel, at worst!"
That would have been when they (KAAR not KVAN) reduced night power on the array re: Mt. St. Helens.
In it's original configuration, the signal was listenable in the null. The signal where I lived at the time (SE 23rd & SE Salmon) was noisy, but free of KRED. Coverage at PDX airport at night was excellent. Coverage along 84 was poor until you got close to I-5 or out by the 205 construction. By the time you got to Division it pretty much was spot coverage close to the river and out by 122nd. That's a big hole, but significantly better than you describe. Moving to Govt. Island was nothing more than an application (not by KVAN, but by KAAR) because of the moratorium on construction in the slough (the reason KVAN had to build in Orchards to begin with) left them with no options to move closer to Portland. By the time that got processed, they were looking to sell the license to Chris Bennett. The moratorium got lifted and KBMS was able to consolidate day and night operations back at the swamp.
I can say that according to Kemmen, McClanathan's DA design would never have worked and the project was running way over in time. Iris, whom was to be the first all night DJ, got tired of waiting around all those extra months and split to KGON where Gloria (another former Monomaniac) already was working. That's how I ended up as the first all nighter, a shift I worked two plus years in Allentown at WSAN before I moved out here. But I digress. What I found when McClanathan left and I went up to Orchards with Kemmen was a lot of shoddy work in the phasor and dog houses. What B.A. and Slobodin found previous to that I can't discuss. McClanathan sued Slobodin for breach of contract and the whole mess was settled out of court. I wasn't involved until he was gone, that is to say I was the studio engineer and maintained the N. Portland site transmitter while McClanathan was supposedly building out the Orchards site. After he was gone, I was up in Orchards M-F and did my shifts on the weekend. After the re-construction of the RF network and the proof field work was done, I started in on building out the studio rooms equipment and running cable, borrowing anyone from the studio that I could drag up there. It was a lot of work and I was getting paid peanuts, but by the time we got the go ahead for Program Test Authority, we had most of the studio configuration done. Then one day we threw the albums in a bunch of vans and pick up trucks and moved up there to broadcast 24/7.
The south edge of tower land borders Vancouver (NE 32nd). The studio was on a smaller parcel of land, adjacent on the east side of the tower land but did not extend as deep to the south from NE34th as the tower land. The call sign is Vancouver, the legal address of the studio and tower parcel was a choice between either of those two addresses if memory serves. When KAAR or KARO (whichever) moved to the tower Mall (or where ever) they sold the land that the studio was on and the studio building to a church, and sold or leased the tower land to the first RF occupant that moved there. I thought that was 1550 and then later Troutdale got on there. I don't even know how it's configured now. Anyway, the two different addresses are contiguous on the south side of NE34th. If you look at a Vancouver map with city limits you can see how it cuts just below NE34th and then up on 154th. I guess Orchards was an adopted whereabouts considering back then the area was not developed and Orchard had a gas station and a few stores. Sifton is really north of Fourth Plain anyway, I thought, and NW of the site whereas Orchards "downtown" was almost due North up 162nd.
No. The 2.5 kW was from N. Portland. Although they probably turned the Orchards array down to 2.5 kW to see what the coverage was like.
Frankly, the signal from Orchards at 5 kW wasn't all that bad and what happened after Patten bought it from Slobodin, had Bennett running it and eventually buying it, was IMHO laughable. The protections were not going to change and trying to cover Portland better with a DA anywhere east of town created a conundrum in that not only were there protections to observe, there also was a need to put city grade into Vancouver. Similar to KISN and most stations on the west coast, protections are north, south and east. Put the station east of where you want to be heard best since major lobes propagating west would provide best coverage there. The east end of Vancouver served this purpose best. Unfortunately, many people in NE and SE Portland couldn't get the night signal due to the null, but it was offset by the addition of a new listenership in Hillsboro, North Plains, Columbia County and a lot of other places that were too far away to get the ND 1kW signal. What went down after 1980 was clearly a series of attempts to do what they thought would work better, but in reality I don't think it could have because with moving south, less power could be radiated to protect Redding and would shrink the major lobe as well, not going as far west. They should have left it alone until they could consolidate in the swamp when the moratorium on construction was lifted. This is what eventually happened anyway, and the lawyers are the only ones that profited from all the attempts to fix the unfixable.
Your Guide to Retirement Homes and Retirement Living -
According to the FCC database, the sequence of events are as follows:
Slobodin sells to Patten 1979 (I had left in '78). Tried to move daytime site to nighttime site and increase daytime power to 5kW DA-2. Rejected. 1980 Tried to move nighttime site to Govt. Island. Granted. Tried to add daytime site to Govt. Island. CP. Rejected. Extended CP for nighttime site on Govt. Island. Granted Tried to move day and night back to N. Portland 2.5kW DA-2: Granted Tried to move day and night to SECTION 6, TWNSHIP 1 N RANGE, PORTLAND, OR; AND MAKE CHGS IN ANT SYS BY INCR HGHT : Granted Tried to move back to the original co-ordinates N. Portland Rd. : Granted Tried to change daytime back to 1kW ND : Granted Licensed to cover in 3-86. No changes since.
"Howard Slobodin's KVAN 5 kW DA at Orchards was designed by William Weakley of Jansky & Bailey, Inc., consulting engineers, of Alexandria, Virginia, in 1975. Robert McClanathan (McClanathan & Associates) was not involved in this project until after the FCC CP was granted.
"McClanathan's contract with Slobodin was to build the entire facility, including the new studio and office building. Slobodin eventually ran out of money to continue the project. Slobodin's father, who was a medical doctor and clinic owner in St. Louis, was providing most of the money for this work. By June 1977, KVAN owed McClanathan & Associates more than $55,000. McClanathan had to pay for the building materials, subcontracts and wages and could not continue this project without a partial payment. The station was mostly complete and the DA proof of performance had been initiated at this time.
"Instead of a partial payment to complete the work, Slobodin terminated McClanathan's contract. Slobodin then hired Silliman, Moffet & Kowalski to complete the DA proof and apply for the license. McClanathan began legal proceedings to collect what he was owed and Slobodin eventually paid McClanathan for the entire amount due, including attorney's fees.
"The design of the phasor and ATUs at the Orchards site was by Louis King of Kintronic Labs, Inc. Kintronic built and provided the four-tower DA phasor cabinet and the four ATU cabinets. They were of excellent quality and were professionally installed to the highest standards. The KVAN phasor and several of the ATUs later were moved to North Portland for KAAR."
It was Sunday October 30, 1938, Halloween Eve and "The Oregon Journal" newspaper was running it's daily radio column ad "Studio Air-Flo, KOIN-KALE". Both stations were owned by The Journal. Among other programs highlighted in this column was:
"An invasion of the earth by inhabitants of Mars will be the imaginary theme of Orson Welles, when the 'Mercury Theatre On The Air' broadcasts an adaptation of H.G. Wells' 'War of The Worlds' over KOIN today at 5 p. m."
That's right, 5:00pm which would have made it 8:00pm Eastern time. This was a Live broadcast across America. Most programs were in 1938. There was no time to warn the West, what was to come.
Snapshot of Portland Stations on 10-30-38: KGW - 620 - NBC/Red KOIN - 940 - CBS KWJJ - 1040 KEX - 1180 - NBC/Blue KALE - 1300 - Mutual/Don Lee KXL - 1420 KBPS - 1420
On Monday October 31, 1938 the front page of "The Oregonian" far right hand corner read: "All Nation Agog - Realistic Radio Drama Causes Hysteria - Play About 'Man From Mars' Invading World Taken to be Real Thing."
The front page of "The Oregon Journal" far right hand corner read: "Radio Play Quiz Begun After Panic - Nationwide Hysteria Follows 'Realistic' Presentation of Invasion From Mars; Federal Agency Investigates Program."
A large picture of 23 year old Orson Welles with a CBS microphone appears with the U.P. article. Above the picture reads: Brought 'Men From Mars'. Below the picture an article: "Orson Welles 'Sorry' - Feared Play 'Too Dull."
From "The Oregonian" which owned rival stations KGW & KEX, comes the best local coverage, headline read: 'War of Worlds' Shakes Portland - Calls Pour in by Hundreds to Newspaper Office.
[Now The Complete Northwest Story]
A wave of hysteria that swept across the United States Sunday night as the result of a realistic radio dramatization of H.G. Wells' "War of The Worlds" reached all the way to Portland, 2500 miles from the scene of the fictional disaster.
The telephone switchboard of "The Oregonian" was swamped by hundreds of excited calls. Queries kept members of the newspaper's editorial department and of radio stations KGW and KEX busy. Several persons rushed into the business offices of "The Oregonian" on the street floor, demanding information.
Police Kept Busy
Dozens of calls were made to "Portland Police" radio operators [KGPP]. Most of the callers demanding to know what protection the city could offer and what place might be safe in event the wholesale destruction spread to the Pacific Coast.
Radio station KOIN which released the program in Portland, reported it was able to answer 500 of the volley that swamped its switchboard. The station received complaints that three women had fainted and a doctor was called for one, the elderly mother of a retired army officer.
At Washougal, Wash., a man was reported to have loaded his family into a car and to have driven frantically through the streets looking for a haven of refuge.
The Portland office of the Western Union Telegraph Company was jammed with persons seeking to send telegrams to relatives in the East, inquiring as to their safety.
At Concrete, Wash., [32 miles East of Mount Vernon] Women fainted and men prepared to take their families into the mountains for safekeeping when electric power failed.
[The Oregon Journal continues this story]
Just as an announcer was "choked off" by "poisonous gas" in what he had just said might be the "last broadcast ever made" the town plunged into darkness. On man bolted from his home, grabbed a small child by the arm and headed for the pine forests.
[The Oregonian continues the story] For a time the village of 1000, verged on mass hysteria.
Elsewhere in the Northwest calls poured into newspaper and press association offices by the thousands. Seattle newspaper switchboard operators reported many hysterical calls from persons wanting to know if it was true New York had disappeared beneath the Atlantic Ocean.
Snapshot of Seattle Stations on 10-30-38: KVI - 570 - CBS (Tacoma) KIRO - 710 - CBS KXA - 760 KOMO - 920 - NBC/Red KJR - 970 - NBC/Blue KRSC - 1120 KTW - 1220 KOL - 1270 - Mutual/Don Lee KMO - 1330 - Mutual/Don Lee (Tacoma) KVL - 1370
From "The Oregon Journal" local headline read: "Many Portlanders' Hair On End During Broadcast"
[Now The Complete Northwest Story]
Radio's "destruction of the world by Martians" got a rise out of many Portlanders' early Sunday evening. Like their Eastern relatives, some Portlanders' hair stood on end when "news flashes" in the dramatization by Orson Welles of H.G. Wells' "War of The Worlds" over CBS and KOIN-The Journal from 5 to 6 p. m. carried the word that "here they come, tall as skyscrapers...they're throwing a heat wave...etc."
Don Price and George McGowan [formerly with KXLY, later KEX News Director], on duty at KOIN-The Journal studios, said that they answered about 100 telephone calls to reassure persons it was "all a dramatization."
The "War of The Worlds" dramatization was a presentation of the "Mercury Theatre On The Air", a Columbia chain sustaining program heard each Sunday over the network from New York City.
The Journal switchboard was "swamped during the play and calls came in intermittently through the evening, the operator reported. Apparently unlike some other cities, no telegrams of inquiry were sent via Western Union to Eastern 'folks'. [note: The Oregonian had said it "was jammed"]
A member of the The Journal staff returning from the coast, was informed by a panic-stricken McMinnville service station attendant, "There's no use buying any gasoline. The worlds coming to an end!" The Journal man insisted on getting his gasoline and driving along.
Sought Baptism, Absolution Grants Pass, Ore., Oct. 31. - (AP) - A Grants Pass minister confirmed the report today that after last night's fantastic radio drama of an invasion of the United States by men from Mars, several persons called in excitement at his home seeking baptism and the benefits of religion. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Leave it to a Oregonian newspaper advertiser to take advantage of all the "War of The Worlds" publicity with their November 2, 1938 ad: _______________________________________________________________________________________ Were You One of those fooled By Sunday's Radio Presentation "WAR OF THE WORLDS" Thousands of people were misled by this fantastic bit of fiction. Countless thousands more are fooled every day by fantastic ad- vertising claims almost equally incredulous. "Thirty dollar suits for twenty," and "Walk up town and save $10," are statements never a part of Lowenson's advertising. Lowenson's never 'blast" you with big space filled with claims difficult to substantiate. We prefer to modestly promise only this: QUALITY CONSIDERED, LOWENSON VALUES ARE EQUAL TO THE BEST OFFERED UNDER ANY SELLING PLAN. Don't take our word for it. Shop for yourself. GEORGE LOWENSON & SON 820 S.W. Washington, Corner 9th Avenue.
All of the Programming Content,Commercials,Announcements,Slang,Language,Music,etc of Old Time Radio,Nostalgia(of that period of time)was common is not intended to offend or so but again was of that time and period and was of acceptance before todays standards or how things are taken of political correct stance or views,does not neccesarily relfect the opinions or views or Omni,AM 1700,and other related or owned stations. This is a pure platform to project the relevant history of Music and Recordings for historical value only and will not edit in anyway these recordings or alter them for content,many of them are Public Domain(as staed before)these are accessable for free and should stay free for educational value only. We are covered by BMI/ASCAP/SESAC/SOCAN/SoundExchange and it is NOT our intention to "Claim Owership",but many of these recordings are from my personal collection of Edison Wax/Tin Foil,Wax,33-78-16-45,Cassette,Reel-To-Reel and were taken off from the air at a young age transfered to Computer. AM 1700/Syncopated Radio Network is Copyrighted in Name and properties of Omni Media and Gerald Gaule, SRN is a free service to all as a program fill for any station at no charge.
It was common place for these broadcast standards,please take this in mind when listening before judgement.
Studios of AM 1700-10405 NE 9th Avenue(C-12),Vancouver Washington 98685-5564.-Transmitter located in Feldia,Washington.
Omni Studios-Jerry DeLaunay(GM)Golden Hours Omni Media Networks 3006 SE 136th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 (503) 784-7649
OCFB Radio(Golden Hours Radio)Oregon Commission for The Blind. 535 SE 12th Ave Portland, OR 97214 (971) 673-1588
This is the history of the popular radio program "Stories of Pacific Powerland". The 5 minute program was sponsored by "Pacific Power & Light Company" and was told by veteran Radio & TV actor Nelson Olmsted. "Stories of Pacific Powerland" were recorded in Portland at Robert Lindahl's "Northwestern, Inc., Motion Picture & Recording" studios at 411 S.W. 13th Ave. The program ran three days a week: Monday's, Wednesday's & Friday's.
Recording began on September 19, 1961. Nelson Olmsted taped 26 programs in the very first recording sessions. He would return to Portland three times yearly from Los Angeles to record more. The stories dealt the past, present and future of the Northwest. Most of the scripts were written by free-lance writer John Forbis. Programs were introduced by KOIN's Clint Gruber who voiced the PP&L commercials. 80 stations in the Pacific Northwest carried the first programs.
Some of the early program titles were: Discovery of The Oregon Caves; The Life & Times of Skidmore Fountain; Invention of Sno-Cats & The Naming of Astoria. The program made its debut broadcast on October 23, 1961 with the story "General Nathan Twining" written by Oregonian staff writer Bill Ening. The first ad read:
Hear the dramatic sea rescue story of former Portlander, General Nathan Twining.
The drama, the humor, the progress of the great land we live in. Told by master storyteller NELSON OLMSTED A radio presentation of PACIFIC POWER & LIGHT COMPANY Mon. - Wed. - Fri. KPAM-FM 12:00PM KPOJ 12:30PM KOIN 5:35PM
Nelson Olmstead loved doing these programs. It brought him back to his radio roots. By 1963 he had recorded 234 of the 5 minute programs. In December 1963 KWJJ was added with a 7:15pm broadcast. KPOJ AM-FM at 12:31pm & KOIN AM-FM continued at 5:35pm. KPAM/KPFM dropped out. In the Fall 1964 "Stories of Pacific Powerland" were now recorded at Northwestern's new location at 2828 S.W. Front Ave. (move took place 7-31-64). In October 1965 KGW was added with a 12:45pm broadcast. KOIN AM-FM continued at 5:35pm & KWJJ at 7:15pm. KPOJ AM-FM dropped out.
By September 1967 "Stories of Pacific Powerland" were heard on 65 stations in California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington & Wyoming. In July 1968 KGW dropped out. In September 1968 KXL was added with a 12:05pm broadcast. KWJJ at 7:05pm & KOIN continued at 5:35pm.
In December 1970 KOIN moved the time to 12:55pm. In Fall 1970 "Stories of Pacific Powerland" began it 10th year and Nelson Olmsted had recorded 728 shows, the latest being in Northwestern's studio A. On January 14, 1972 it was announced the first 10 years of the program would air on "Golden Hours". Also in January 1972 KXL moved the time to 12:10pm. In September 1972 KOIN moved the time to 12:40pm.
By April 1973 main writer & producer John Forbis had left the program to debut a similar radio series in New Zealand with partner Nadco Belantine-Scott, closely modeled after "Stories of Pacific Powerland" called "Trailblazers of New Zealand" using the same format of short historical vignettes and personality profiles. It was heard nationwide on 44 NZBC stations and was sponsored by The Ministry of Work & Development. Replacing John Forbis was free-lance writer Thomas K. Worcester.
On March 6, 1974 "Stories of Pacific Powerland" presented it's 1,000th story which made the program one of the longest-running radio shows of its type in the county. In October 1975 the program began it 15th year on 76 stations including KOIN, KXL & KWJJ. In September 1976 Nelson Olmsted recorded his 1,200th show in Portland.
On September 16, 1977 Nelson Olmsted had just finished his 1,299th program when he got the news from PP&L "Stories of Pacific Powerland" heard on 71 stations would go off the air next month after 17 years. Listener survey's showed a gradual erosion of the audience. PP&L said "Over the years we feel that it's been very good for the company." The last of the programs depending on station contracts ended in mid October 1977.
When Buying OTR(Buyer Beware)..OTRR Definitions:
OTRR Certified Accurate -- A series that is Certified Accurate indicates that all the episodes are properly identified and labeled but that the series does not contain all known extant episodes.
OTRR Certified Complete -- A series that is Certified Complete is the highest level of certification available under the OTRR Certified Standards. This certification level implies that all the files in the series are Certified Accurate but also indicates that the series is as complete as possible – it includes all extant episodes.
OTRR Non-Certified -- A collection of shows that has not gone through the OTRR Certification process.
We do NOT endorse selling of any OTR(for profit)because many are Public Domain-and people are there to rip you off!!
On May 1, 1959 Gordon A. Rogers, President, P.D. & licensee of "Radio Station KBLA" a 250 watt broadcaster on 1490kc. in Burbank CA, made an announcement. Mr. Rogers had applied for a 1KW daytime station on 1550kc. in Vancouver WA. On January 10, 1962 the FCC granted a construction permit. Estimated construction cost was $13,675. First year operating cost $72,000. First year anticipated advertising revenue $75,000. Proceeds from the KBLA sale by July 1960 were used for the building of the new station. Trivia: KBLA switched to 1500kc. & 10KW daytime in 1964, broadcasting a Top 40 format with DJ, Humble Harv. KBLA was reprised with Humble Harv in the 1980 movie "The Hollywood Knights" depicting Halloween night 1965.
On August 10, 1963 KGAR began operation at 5:00AM. KGAR studio & transmitter were located in the Fruit Valley vacinity of Vancouver WA (2808 Walnut St., in a former home). The transmitter was a Bauer 707, serial number XT-1 (1st 707 & prototype). The tower was about 100 feet of sewer pipe. The studio consisted of a Collins 212B console, 2 Russco turntables, a Western Electric microphone, 3 Magnecord PT-6 reel-to-reel tape machines & 2 Spotmaster cart machines. Equipment was originally refurbished or castoff from KBLA.
Behind The Mike column 8-15-63. "We run an all-news format says Gordon A. Rogers to The Oregonian. Sunday will be offered to churches for commercial religious programs. Religious music and smooth standards may also be played Sunday along with the news. No jungle or teen-age frantic music will be played at any time. We program to the adult listeners and at the same time invite the youngsters to tune in and find out what is going on in the world around them. We will not play down Vancouver. We are licensed as a Vancouver radio station and are proud to admit that our signal emanates from that beautiful city.(jab at KISN?). Our broadcasts will serve Vancouver, Portland and the adjacent environs on an equal basis."
Gordon A. Rogers was President & licensee; Gordon A. Rogers, Jr., General Manager; Bob Van Roy, News Director (formerly KKEY N.D.); Leo Erickson, Chief Engineer and station builder. KGAR call meaning: Gordon Arthur Rogers. KGAR operated 5:00AM to sunset daily. (6AM sign on in Winter). KGAR slogans: All news, all day. KGAR has it all over Vancouver, Portland. The KGAR Newscasters were Bob Van Ray, Tom Cauthers (formerly with KGON-1230, KYJC, KRVC, KNND M.D., KKEY & KGRO) & Gordon Short (aka Al Gordon).
Tom Cauthers remembers September 1963: "The three guys would rotate doing shifts. All the news was rip n' read off the UPI teletype machine. The first newscast was assembled off the wire, and had to last at least 30 minutes. It was recorded as it was delivered live on the air. Then, about 3 minutes of PSA's ran while the reporter re-wound the tape to air it. That newscast would run again, while the reporter assembled the next half hour newscast. When the first tape was over, the reporter would read another half hour while the tape recorded."
"When it was over, the first tape ran. Then the second tape, while the reporter got ready to read the third segment while it was being recorded. After that, every other half hour was fresh, and recorded for later playback." Refered to on the air as "The KGAR News-wheel". News shifts were 5-11AM, 11-4PM & 4-sunset. In January 1964 Tom's brother, Bruce Cauthers began Saturday newscasts & fill-ins. (formerly with KFLY, KLOO & KGRO).
In January 1966 KGAR switched to a Top 40 format. 50KW KYMN 1520kc. had abandoned it's Top 40 format on 2-1-65 after battling 1KW KISN 910kc. for 6 months. The KGAR feud would be more personal, a battle KISN would never forget. KGAR's Program Director became A.J. Harold (formerly on KSNN, later aka Bobby Noonan). Tim L. Freed, Chief Engineer (formerly on KBPS, KPAM-KPFM). KGAR slogan: Everything's nifty on 15-50. The KGAR air staff included: Tim Freed, 6-10AM; Rob ???, 10-2PM; A.J. Harold, 2-sunset.
On January 31, 1966 Robert T. Fletcher joined the KGAR sales staff (formerly on KEED, KOMB, KBAR, KFLY, KGAY, KRXL, KLOO & KWAY G.M.). In March 1966 Robert T. Fletcher aka Bob Duke became Program Director. On May 1, 1966 KGAR launched it's "Boss Radio" slogans: Boss radio at 1550. The IN sound in town. The Boss 1550. More rockin' rhythm, more often. KGAR plays more music. Much more music machine, KGAR 1550. (Boss Radio duplicated from "93 KHJ" slogans launched 5-3-65).
On May 10, 1966 KGAR moved studios to Portland OR. Baker's Dozen by Doug Baker 5-9-66: "Early this year one Gordon Rogers, Sr. the owner of KGAR radio in Vancouver WASH. secretly leased the Flatiron Building at the corner of S.W. 10th & Burnside (949 S.W. Oak St.). Once he had a 10 year lease Rogers took pains to white wash the windows of the building with poster paint thus masking from view what has happened in the building during the past six weeks. The building you see is directly across the street from KISN studios at N.W. 10th & Burnside." (10 N.W. 10th Ave.)
"Just to turn the knife in the wound, Rogers will erect on his new building large signs. The first one due to go into position this Monday (today), will read "KGAR Boss Radio, Dial 1550". On the side of the building which faces KISN's building another big sign will read "Radio IS KGAR". Although KGAR is moving it's sales and administrative offices into the new Portland site, it will continue says Rogers to keep it's Vancouver WASH., identification, operating studios there and licensing it's news truck in Washington."
"Rogers, while he plans to spoof KISN's various promotions has no intention of spending the large sums of money spent by the Star Broadcasting Co. on it's promotional efforts. He gave as an example, his recent "Bat Guanomobile" contest ran in rebuttal to KISN's "Batmobile" contest. KISN gave away large prizes, KGAR only a wheelbarrow of guano and a trip to Scappoose." KISN's only comment came on 5-12-66 in "Baker's Dozen" from a staff member not mentioned. "KGAR took a big gamble in signing a 10 year lease. The radio biz being what it is, it was risky..."
The Oak Street studio was used on air mornings & afternoon drive only. Middays the studio was a production room. By July 1966 The Boss Personalities were: Don Coss, 5-9AM (formerly on KWAY & KUIK); Big Daddy Duke (aka Bob Duke) 9-Noon; Tim Freed, Noon-2; A.J. Harold, 2-sunset. In late September 1966 Robert T. Fletcher became Assistant G.M. & Paul Oscar Anderson aka P.O.A. became Program Director (formerly on KISN). The Boss Jocks were: P.O.A., 5-9AM; Don Coss, 9-Noon; Tim Freed, Noon-2 & A.J. Harold 2-sunset.
On October 17, 1966 in a civil action before Circuit Judge, Robert E. Jones, Paul E. Brown aka Paul Oscar Anderson claimed he was fired for refusing to go along with KISN election coverage. Mr. Brown told the court that on September 22, 1966 Don Burdon, President of KISN told him he planned "to put Mark Hatfield in the U.S. Senate." KISN News reports on rival Bob Duncan were to "show Duncan in a bad light." Mr. Brown believing this policy to be in violation of the FCC equal time provision, refused to play promotional spots announcing special coverage and was fired by KISN's Program Director. (PD name not mentioned).
On October 18, 1966 the KISN slanted news charge was "not substantiated by the preponderance of evidence." KISN had sought an injunction enforcing a no-competition clause in Mr. Brown's contract for one year. The Judge ruled Mr. Brown could not broadcast on KGAR until December 1, 1966. "Gordon A. Rogers, owner of station KGAR, said Brown will immediately go to work for his station doing sales. On December 1st he will go on the air as our top morning disc jockey." Rick Chase was interim mornings.
In hindsight October 17, 1966 would mark the beginning of the end for KISN & the Star Stations, Inc. group. In December 1966 P.O.A. dropped the "Boss Radio" slogans in favor of "KGAR, the hard rock of the Northwest." By early 1967 P.O.A. had parted from KGAR and Bob Fletcher was P.D. again, as well as Assistant G.M. By Summer 1967 Gene Nelson was doing Afternoon Drive on KGAR.
On January 1, 1968 abc Radio divided it's network into four services. KGAR became an affiliate & debuted the "American Contemporary Radio Network" to the Portland market. By May 1968 the KGAR air staff included: Don Coss, 5-10AM; Tim Freed, 10-3PM; Todd Dennis (younger brother of Don Coss) 3-sunset. By this time the KGAR BIG '15' music surveys were being distributed. By October 1968 KGAR was listed as programming "Negro music 6 hours weekly". By June 1969 KGAR's format was described as "Top 30 and R & B music." By October 1969 Danny Dark aka C. Norman Chase was News Director & Chief Engineer.
In late 1969 KGAR closed it's Oak Street studio. (by fall 1970 the studio was the new location for "Ron Bailie School of Broadcast"). By late 1969 the KGAR air staff included: Big Daddy Duke, 6-Noon & Danny Dark, Noon-sunset. Sundays included: Dave Stone (formerly on KRDR as Junior Rockaway, later aka Dave "Record" Stone) 10-sunset. KGAR slogan: The music station. On December 15, 1969 Bob (Duke) Fletcher became General Manager, as well as P.D.
On April 7, 1970 KGAR began a transition from "Top 30" to "Golden Hits" freaturing afternoon talk shows "Just Pain Jack" hosted by Jack Hurd (formerly on KLIQ) 4-6PM & Bob Duke, 6-sunset. On May 1, 1970 KGAR switched to all "Golden Hits". By October 1970 Michael W. Johnson was Program Director.
On January 18, 1971 KGAR switched format to Country & Western. Slogans: Town & Country KGAR. The Country 1. Country 1550. KGAR call slogan: Great American Radio. Bob (Duke) Fletcher, G.M. & P.D., also on the air 3:30-sunset; Michael Johnson, Music Director. The abc Contemporary Network was dropped. By October 1971 Dan Ramsey was News Director.
On September 13, 1972 KGAR switched back to a "Top 20 Rock" format. Slogans: We found it, KGAR 1-55. There's only one KGAR. Bob (Duke) Fletcher, G.M., P.D. & M.D.; Mike Garland, News Director. On March 23, 1974 KGAR added Soul music to weekends with DJ's, Jimmy "Bang-Bang" Walker & Roy Jay-Soul (later KQIV G.M.). KGAR weekend slogan: The Soul of Portland. Also in 1974 KGAR affiliated with the Mutual Black Network (news at 50 after the hour)(founded by MBS on May 1, 1972, MBN featured a Black perspective on the news). KGAR also re-affiliated with the abc Contemporary Network (news at 55 after the hour). By October 1974 KGAR's address had changed to 2808 N.W. Walnut St.
In 1975 KGAR opened an additional studio at the "Inn At The Quay" aka "Inn At The Quay Motor Inn" (100 Columbia St.) in Vancouver. (Collins console). In 1976 KGAR dropped the Mutual Black Network & added APR Audio news. KGAR broadcast 6 hours of Black programming, 1 hour of farm news & 6 hours of religion weekly. KGAR slogan: Super Rock. By 1976 Peter A. Mann was Music Director; Dave Beck, News Director (formerly on KOIN) & Oliver Potter, Chief Engineer. On September 2, 1976 KISN signed off the air after the 5 Star Stations were denied FCC licenses on 1-31-75. Charges brought back to life on 12-3-70. Gordon A. Rogers had won the war. (for more on this, see "KVAN & KISN: The Originals").
On December 22, 1976 KGAR's license was transferred to KGAR, Inc. (Gordon A. Rogers, President & 51% owner; Lloyd Graham, 24.5%; Robert Schaefer, 12.75% & John Wynne, 12.75% interest).
On December 24, 1976 at 3:38AM KGAR began 24 hour operation from it's new main studio & transmitter site in Orchards WA. Land now part of SEH America, Inc. (4111 N.E. 112th Ave.). KGAR increased power to 10KW with directional nights. The two Blaw-Knox towers were formerly the KXL towers from the old Clackamas Town Center site. KGAR had installed a Continential Electronics 316F transmitter with the Bauer 707 as back up in the new cinder block building. The Walnut Street location was now sales & production only.
KGAR expanded it's Top 40 programming and added the talk show "Family Forum & Fun" hosted by Al Emrich (formerly on KLIQ) Monday through Thursday 11-1AM. Fridays talk show "Rapline" was hosted by A.C. (Al C. Emrich, Jr.) 11-1AM. By March 1977 KGAR slogan: Music Radio 1550. By late Spring 1977 the "KGAR Music Men" were: Bob "Big Daddy" Duke, 6-10AM; Mark O. Foster, 10-2PM; Bob Meyer, 2-7PM; Jay McCrae (formerly on KYAC, later aka Kelly McCrae) 7-11PM; Al Emrich, 11-1AM; A.C. 1-6AM. Weekenders: Steve Naganuma, afternoons (formerly with KGW & KPAM-FM) & Hal Hill, evenings. By May 1977 additional slogan: 1-55 KGAR.
On August 1, 1977 KGAR switched to a Country format for the 2nd time. Robert T. Fletcher, G.M. & P.D.; Roger Hart, Music Director (formerly on KLIQ & KEX as Roger Ferrier; KISN, KGAY P.D., KGAL P.D., KKEY, KGON & KISN as Roger Hart); "Al" Alfred C. Emrich, Promotion Manager. KGAR slogan: Country 1550. KGAR dropped the abc Contemporary Network. By October 1977 KGAR had abandoned it's "Inn At The Quay" studio.
By November 1977 the KGAR air staff included: Roger Hart, 6-10AM; Bob "Big Daddy" Duke (Fletcher) 10-3PM; Dave Stone (the original) 3-7PM; ????, 7-12AM; Steve Dougles, 12-6AM; Sundays: Steve Bradley, alternating 7-12AM & 12-5AM (formerly at KPOK AM-FM, KUPL AM-FM & KKEY). Sunday talk shows: Al Emrich, 8-9AM; Geno Martini, 9-10AM. KGAR slogan: There's only one KGAR. By October 1978 the KGAR air staff included: Bob Meyer, 6-10AM; Steve Meredith, 10-3PM; Bob Taylor (formerly on KPOK) 3-7PM; Judy West (formerly Judy Grindstaff on KOAP-FM) 7-12AM & Earlray, 12-6AM.
On December 1, 1978 KGAR, Inc. was purchased by Inland Radio, Inc. (group owner: Capps Broadcast Group, Inc.; David N. Capps, President & 40% interest; Gary L. Capps, Vice-President & 40% interest) for about $1 Million. The brothers also owned under the Capps banner: Inland Radio, Inc., KSRV Ontario OR; Juniper Broadcasting, Inc., KGAL & KXIQ (FM) Bend OR (also corporate offices); Eastern Oregon Broadcasters, Inc., KTIX Pendleton OR; Capps Broadcasting, Inc., KGAL Lebanon OR & Capps Broadcast Group, Inc., KEEP & KEZJ (FM) Twin Falls ID. (FCC approval: 11-17-78. License transferred:: 11-22-78).
"We really feel that Vancouver never had a radio station that paid attention to Vancouver" Capps explained. "It (Clark County) is a growing market, and it's worthy of at least one-station." Ron Hughes became General Manager & P.D.; James (Al) Boyd, Corporate Director of Engineering (formerly on WRBL, KBND P.D., KTIX P.D., N.D. & C.E.; KGRL O.M.). Also in December 1978 KGAR moved it's sales & production offices to the "Avenide del Sol" shopping center (5620 N.E. Gher Rd., Suite H).
In March 1979 Bill Cole became Program Director & M.D. (formerly KLOG P.D. & C.E., KGAL, KASH, KPUG P.D., KPOK, KWJJ, KTNT-KNBQ P.D., KMPS). In January 1980 the KGAR air staff included : Bill Cole, 6-9AM, Rick Elgin (formerly on KYXI) 9-Noon; Bob Taylor, Noon-3; Jeff Williams (formerly on KRDR & KGAY) 3-7PM; Judy West, 7-12AM; Dale Hansen, 12-6AM, Steve Meredith, morning news & News Director; Candice Seigal, afternoon news. In June 1980 Rick Freeman was doing Noon-3. In early 1981 Barry Burkes was Noon-3. KGAR slogan: The only one. (KGAR). In Spring 1981 Bill Cole became Operations Manager as well as M.D.
On May 4, 1981 KGAR became KVAN. Call slogan: VANcouver Radio. This was the 3rd KVAN. The original was on 910kHz. and the 2nd on 1480kHz. KVAN slogans: K-Van is Clark County proud! Vancouver Country. Sometime after the call change, the studio & transmitter address became known as "1550 KVAN Way". In October 1981 Jeff Williams became Music Director. By December 1981 Ron Hughes was V.P. & G.M.; Becky Hale, News Director & James Boyd, KVAN Chief Engineer. In April 1982 Dick Manning became News Director. In June 1982 KVAN reduced hours of operation 5AM to Midnight. In early 1983 Jim McEwen was on air 6-12AM (formerly aka Jim Conway on KRDR, KWJJ & KAAR). In December 1983 Jeff Williams became News Director. In Summer 1984 Bill Cole became Station Manager.
On May 15, 1985 studios moved to the "Avenida del Sol" shopping center with sales & production. K-Van expanded into an adjacent suite, taking out a wall. In July 1985 KVAN moved it's transmitter site to Sifton WA (15307 N.E. 34th St. This land was formerly the KPVA, KVAN & KARO transmitters site. All had been on 1480kHz. The address then was 15507 N.E. 34th St.). Two tower array. The Continental & Bauer transmitters were moved from the old site to the new and the land sold to SEH America for their expansion. In October 1985 James Boyd became Corporate Director of Engineering, again. By December 1985 Dave Lee was Program Director & M.D. plus doing afternoon drive.
In early 1986 KVAN was sold to Gentry Development Corp. (David N. Capps, retained 39.68%; Bruce L. Engel & William G. Williamson) for $1,289,964. Mr. Engel was also President of Tigard-based WTD Industries, Inc. which owned timber mills. In Spring 1986 KVAN switched format to Adult Contemporary. Warren Franklin, Program Director & M.D.; James Boyd, KVAN Chief Engineer, again.
On December 31, 1986 it was announced that Magic Radio, Inc. (Bruce L. Engel, principal owner, with Matt Capps & Gary L. Capps) purchased KMJK (FM) 106.7MHz. Lake Oswego OR for $3.9 Million. Gary L. Capps, C.E.O. (transfer in 4-87). By December 1987 Warren Franklin was K-Van's Program Director; Paul Duckworth, Music Director & afternoon drive. In February 1988 KVAN affiliated with the Mutual Network. Also in 1988 KVAN & KMJK (FM) licensee names merged and became Engel Communications Group (Bruce L. Engel, President; Terri Engel & David N. Capps).
On February 4, 1989 it was announced that KVAN was purchased by Rogue Broadcasting Corp. (group owner: Fairmont Communications Corp.; John P. Hayes, Jr., President & COO) for $7.4 Million. (price included FM sister. FCC approval: 5-5-89. Transfer: 8-1-89). On September 12, 1989 David McDonald became Vice-President & G.M. of Rogue Broadcasting Corp.
On October 2, 1989 at 10:37AM most of the K-Van staff was laid off "purely for economic reasons." "Ten K-Van employees were terminated effective immediately, with three scheduled to continue operating the business end and the operation. It left employees in a state of shock. Some were described as in tears by the time the brief session ended." During the meeting at 10:23AM KVAN began simalcasting sister KMJK (FM)'s Classic Rock format from studios located in the "Kristin Square" building (9500 S.W. Barbur Blvd., Suite 302) in Portland OR. KVAN played local spot breaks within the simulcast along with it's own local newscast (news copy faxed from KMJK) and continued local sports broadcasts. KVAN's affiliation with the Mutual Network ended. Bill Stairs, Program Director; Brad Dolbeer, Music Director; John Dimeo, KVAN Manager. Slogan: Classic Hits 106.7 KMJK.
On October 12, 1989 KVAN became KMJK. Call meaning from FM sister history as Magic. (this was the 2nd KMJK (AM). The 1st was on 1290kHz.). By this time Jeff Williams had been re-hired as 1550's Public Affairs Director. In December 1989 Mark O. Hubbard became President of Fairmont. In January 1990 KMJK (AM) moved it's studio to the smaller 800 square foot "Suite L" within the "Avenida del Sol" shopping center. On February 19, 1990 KMJK & KMJK-FM switched to a Hot A.C. format. By December 1990 Michael Ellis was Program Director. On January 25, 1991 simulcast sister KMJK-FM became KMXI.
On February 15, 1991 KMJK became KVAN once again. On February 18, 1991 KVAN dropped it's simulcast of KMXI 6AM to 10PM daily. KVAN adopted a "light contemporary adult music" format and began utilizing National Broadcasting School graduates & students as air talent. Dave McDonald, V.P. & G.M. "had decided that it was not cost effective to generate revenue with KVAN." From 10PM to 6AM KVAN continued to simulcast KMXI. KVAN re-affiliated with the Mutual Network, carrying news at 30 minutes passed the hour. Les Friedman, Manager (formerly on KVAN-1480); Rocket (real name unknown) P.D. KVAN slogans: Clark County radio. Number 1 in Clark County. Clark County's choice.
On August 28, 1992 Fairmont Communications Corp. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. $128.7 Million in assets and $235.5 Million in liabilities. Fairmont owned 4 AM's & 5 FM's. Between September 20 & 27, 1992 KVAN switched to a Talk format. Night simulcasting with KMXI ended. Terry Richard, Manager. Slogans: People power for the Pacific Northwest. Vancouver's own K-Van.
In April 1993 the NBS school agreement ended and KVAN was turned over to KWBY 940kHz. Woodburn OR, under a L.M.A. Donald D. Coss became President of KVAN. Mr. Coss was also President, G.M. & licensee of KWBY. KVAN began simulcasting KWBY's Classic Country format with some talk programming from studios at "Pacific Plaza" (1585 North Pacific Hwy., Suite H). KVAN also featured block programming from the K-Van studio. KVAN operated 5AM to Midnight. Kiefer Mitchell became General Manager. In Summer 1993 K-Van added Spanish programming.
On July 12, 1993 KVAN was sold to Vancouveradio, Inc. (Richard A. Granger, Sr., President & G.M., a former Clark County Commissioner) for $177,750. plus $6,340. back taxes. (FCC approval on 9-10-93). James Boyd, Contract Engineer. On September 4, 1993 license transfer took place and KVAN was shut down. A larger facility was needed for the forthcoming full service station.
On October 25, 1993 KVAN returned to the air as a 24 hour News station with a local morning news block. Studios opened in the new "Pacific Business Center" (7710 N.E. Vancouver Mall Drive, Suite F) in Vancouver WA. K-Van occupied 1,904 square feet of space. Jeff Williams, Assistant G.M., Operations Manager & News Director; Bill Cole, Station Manager. KVAN affiliated with CNN Headline News. Slogans: We're Clark County's information station, K-Van 1550. Clark County owned, Clark County operated, Clark County proud! Clark County's K-Van. Clark County news comes first on K-Van 1550.
By mid February 1994 KVAN had change to a News/Talk format, affiliating with Major Talk Network, Mutual, Talk America, United Stations Radio Network & Westwood One. K-Van became the Portland area's first "Hot Talk" station. KVAN slogans: Clark County's hot talk, K-Van 1550. Talk to hot for Portland.
In March 1994 David Granger became General Manager; Jeff Williams, Operations Manager & Mark Granger, News Director. Also in March 1994 KVAN dropped CNN for abc News. In the first week of October 1996 KVAN was knocked off the air for six days following a fire at the transmitter site from electrical problems. Also in October 1996 Mark Granger became Program Director as well as News Director. By 1997 K-Van had dropped Major Talk Network, Talk America, United Stations Radio Network , Westwood One and added the WOR Radio Network. Between October 15 & 17, 1997 KPAM 860kHz. Troutdale OR began operation from the KVAN transmitter site. In 1998 KVAN installed a new Nautel XL-12 transmitter. The Continental 316F became the back up.
On November 20, 1998 KVAN was sold to Pamplin Broadcasting-Washington, Inc. (group owner: Pamplin Communications Corp.; Dr. Robert B. Pamplin, Jr., President, CEO & Chairmen; Gary A. Randall, COO & Vice-Chairman; Kevin Young, Vice-President & G.M.) for $1.65 Million. On April 18, 1999 Westwood One pulled the plug on the Mutual Network after 62 years of service to the Northwest. MBS programming moved to Westwood One & KVAN became an affiliate. In August 1999 Paul H. Hanson became News Director (formerly KVAN-1480 N.D., KPAM-KPFM N.D., KYXI, N.D.). In September 1999 KVAN added affiliations with ESPN Radio & Radio America.
On January 1, 2000 David Bischoff became Chief Engineer (formerly with KOIN AM-FM, KVAN-1480 C.E., KYTE-KLLB-KRCK C.E., KKCW C.E., KEX-KKRZ). Early 2001 KVAN slogan: Clark County Radio. On April 11, 2001 Gary A. Randall retired from Pamplin Communications Corp. Also in April 2001 Mark L. Ail became Operations Manager (formerly with KISN sales). On July 7, 2001 KVAN dropped it's local morning news block along with ESPN Radio & Radio America networks. In November 2002 Bill Gallagher became Program Director (formerly KGW N.D., KXL, KEX, KEWS). On December 19, 2002 KVAN was granted "Program Test Authority" through 6-20-03, to begin work on a power increase.
On March 25, 2003 KVAN became KKAD. Call slogan & format: ADvice talk. KKAD added affiliations with AP Network News, Jones Radio Network, Talk America, Talk Radio Network & Wall Street Journal Radio. abc & Westwood One were dropped. KKAD slogan: Sound advice, no politices. In April 2003 KKAD increased power to 50KW day & 12KW directional nights. Four towers, 81.7 meters in height. A new Harris DX-50 transmitter had been installed. The Nautel XL-12 became the back up. The old Continental & Bauer were dismantled and junked. Also in 2003 Tim Hohl was News Director.
On the weekend of September 1, 2003 KKAD moved studios to sister KPAM at the "Pioneer Tower" building (888 S.W. 5th Ave., Suite 790) in Portland OR. (studios formerly home to KKCW & KXYQ-FM, 1993-95. KKRH-KRSK, KKSN & KKSN-FM, 1995-99).
On June 14, 2004 KKAD changed format to "The Music of Your Life" Radio Network, syndicated by Jones Radio Networks. KKAD dropped Talk America, Talk Radio Network, Wall Street Journal Radio & WOR Radio Network. Slogans: The all new AM 1550 KKAD. You're listening to the music of your life on AM 1550 KKAD. In Summer 2004 Bill Gallagher became News Director. On September 9, 2004 Paul Clithero became General Manager. On December 16, 2004 KKAD added the slogan: Sunny 1550. KKAD slogans: Thanks for listening to the all new Sunny 1550 KKAD. It's the music of your life on Sunny 1550 KKAD.
A Special Thanks to: Mark Ail, Dave Bischoff, James Boyd, Steve Bradley, Bruce Cauthers, Tom Cauthers, Earl R. Cogdill, Bill Cole, Jim Conway, Bill Cooper, Andy Craig, Todd Dennis, Brad Dolbeer, Bob Fletcher, Tim Freed, Bill Gallagher, Drew Harold aka Bobby Noonan, Roger Hart, Jeff Hunter, Rich Johnson, Kelly McCrae, Joel Miller, Kirk Myers, Steve Naganuma, Semoochie, Dave "Record" Stone, Steve Taylor, Jeff Thomas & Jeff Williams for their invaluable assistance in this radio history.
Originally KPVA as KRIV, began transmitting from Camas at 1916 N.E. 2nd Ave. in 1955. When the calls changed to KPVA signifying Portland Vancouver Area (6-6-58) the station was on the move to become a Vancouver licensed broadcaster. On 12-15-60 the FCC granted by then KVAN permission to change city of license to Vancouver.
I'm sure this would've happened if Bill Murphy the stations Owner & C.E. would have stayed on. But unfortunately (not for him) he was in the middle of a divorce from Cathryn Murphy who would come out of this as owner on 11-2-60. The license change to Vancouver wouldn't occur until 1965 with the next transmitter move to Hayden Island earlier in 1961 (12640 N. Farr Rd.). Note each move was closer to Portland.
During the day the station would play county music. And during the breaks you would always hear local commercials first. During the summer KGAR - KVAN did a lot of sponsorship at the Clark County Fair. Things like a live remote from the fairgrounds. And helping to introduce a county act that appeared at the fair during the 1970's.
KGAR (1963-1981) KVAN (1981-1989) KMJK (1989-1991) KVAN (1991-2003) KKAD (2003-2011)
All of the Programming Content,Commercials,Announcements,Slang,Language,Music,etc of Old Time Radio,Nostalgia(of that period of time)was common is not intended to offend or so but again was of that time and period and was of acceptance before todays standards or how things are taken of political correct stance or views,does not neccesarily relfect the opinions or views or Omni,AM 1700,and other related or owned stations. This is a pure platform to project the relevant history of Music and Recordings for historical value only and will not edit in anyway these recordings or alter them for content,many of them are Public Domain(as staed before)these are accessable for free and should stay free for educational value only. We are covered by BMI/ASCAP/SESAC/SOCAN/SoundExchange and it is NOT our intention to "Claim Owership",but many of these recordings are from my personal collection of Edison Wax/Tin Foil,Wax,33-78-16-45,Cassette,Reel-To-Reel and were taken off from the air at a young age transfered to Computer. AM 1700/Syncopated Radio Network is Copyrighted in Name and properties of Omni Media and Gerald Gaule, SRN is a free service to all as a program fill for any station at no charge.
It was common place for these broadcast standards,please take this in mind when listening before judgement.
Studios of AM 1700-10405 NE 9th Avenue(C-12),Vancouver Washington 98685-5564.-Transmitter located in Feldia,Washington.
Omni Studios-Jerry DeLaunay(GM)Golden Hours Omni Media Networks 3006 SE 136th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 (503) 784-7649
OCFB Radio(Golden Hours Radio)Oregon Commission for The Blind. 535 SE 12th Ave Portland, OR 97214 (971) 673-1588
On November 5, 1953 the FCC issued a Construction Permit for a new AM station on 1150kc with 1kw, non-directional daytime hours only licensed to Vancouver, Washington. Call letters granted were KHFS standing for "Kilowatt High-Fidelity Station". KHFS was licensed to Western Broadcasting Co. (Charles M. Weagant, 60% owner & Chief Engineer). Charles had been KBPS Chief Engineer. Previous to this, Weagant had made Portland news when on Monday May 6, 1940 Charles, using his 1kw ham station W7GAE made connect with polar explorer Admiral Byrd for 20 minutes from his base at Little America in the Antarctic. Two more additional contacts were made. (son Ralph C. Weagant, 40% owner, Program Director & News Director) Ralph had first been with KVAN-910 & KXL as a news announcer. Western Broadcasting Co. was originally the company name used on KEX's first license in 1926. KHFS estimated construction cost was $18,500.
The transmitter was designed and built by Charles Weagant, in the garage at his home at 3221 N.E. 38th in Portland. Warren Weagant: "He had severe Rheumatoid Arthritis and could only get around with crutches. Due to coming down with tuberculosis, some of the broadcast equipment was installed at the station site by his son and freelance engineers, including Bryce Howard (who became Chief Engineer), Bob Way, Harold "Al" Potter, KBPS Chief Engineer, under the direction of Charles Weagant, via phone."
On July 3, 1954 KHFS began testing it's transmitter at 7:00am with Bob Way at the controls until 10:15am when Loyal E.W. Conley (later KLIQ CE) took over. KHFS was shut down at 10:37am due to a transformer failure. At 4:25pm KHFS began testing again with the transformer fixed. Loyal E.W. Conley & Stan Heintz were at the controls. Loyal Conley left at 5:06pm leaving Stan Heintz to finish testing and signing off at 8:00pm.
On July 4, 1954 KHFS officially began operation from its studios & transmitter site located at 5500 Fourth Plain Road in Vancouver. Once again Bob Way was at the controls with sign on at 7:00am. KHFS broadcast a Hi-Fi Good Music format. Ralph Weagant took over at 11:10am to 4:00pm with Stan Heintz on until KHFS sign off at 8:00pm. Ernest E. "Earnie" Crater was Commercial Manager. Also working at KHFS were Fred Hobbs (formerly on KBOL) announcer and Forest Lovett (formerly KMCM sales). KHFS slogan: Your high-fidelity station, first in the nation. KHFS was "less than 1 per cent over-all harmonic distortion in the 50 to 7500-cycle range."
New information E-Mailed from Fred Hobbs. The DJ line up above from the original history, came from KHFS transmitter logs that were obtained. These were the only documents available but did not necessarily reflect who was on the air, only the program log would do that and is most likely long gone. In most cases today, the DJ is also the engineer. This was not the norm in radio's past. Fred Hobbs (later on AFN Berlin, KBOL PD, KDEN ND, KLZ AM-TV, KWGN-TV ND, KEZW) was not the engineer during his shows. He was on the air weekdays 10am to 1pm.
Fred Hobbs remembers: "Most weekdays Ralph Weagant was on the air mid-to late afternoon. My recollection is that Stan Heinz finished the day on the air. I worked a shift on Sundays, also. Actually, mine was the first voice on the air on the first regular day of broadcasting which was indeed July fourth, but not in the morning. We went on the air in the afternoon. The first FULL day was the next on which Bob Way did indeed start the day of broadcasting. My first few words were brief, announcing we were formally on the air after the days of testing and then I introduced Ralph who hosted the first show. Music was middle of the road and we had only a few records and some pre-produced tapes. On the first week of October 1954, I received my draft notice, entered the army later that month."
On February 7, 1955 KHFS debuted "Read Your Bible Program" weekdays at 7:45am with evangelists Tom Fair & Demcy Mylar (later KRWC co-owner). In April 1955 "The Jimmy Randall Show" (formerly on KVAN) began Monday thru Saturday 7:00 to 8:00am featuring Country Western music. On April 18, 1955 "The Psalm of Life" debuted weekdays 6:45 to 7:00am with Rev. W.E. Klawiter. On July 4, 1955 Eddy Marvin began a Country Western D.J. program at 12:30pm with very little Hill-billy music.
On May 7, 1956 KHFS debuted "The Caffeine Charlie Show" weekdays 10:00 to 11:45am, giving way Boyd's Coffee every 30 minutes. By June 1956 the show "Day Dreams" was on weekdays 12:30 to 12:45pm with Leon "Fingers" Drews (formerly on KOIN, KALE, KPRO MD, KFI) organist. Sponsored by "Day Music Co." By July 1956 Don Dowling had a disc-jockey show Saturday's 6:30pm to 8:00pm. By August 1956 Wally Thornton (formerly on KWIL, KENE) was also a KHFS D.J. By August 1956 Gene Brendler (formerly on KWJJ & KXL, simultaneously on KPTV ND/PAD; later on KMUZ) was doing a disc-jockey show Saturday's 9:30am to 4:30pm and Hal Starr (formerly on KXL, KEX, KPDQ PD, KGW) show "Hal's Half Acre" (later KGW PD). KHFS slogan: 1,000 watts of Personality in High-Fidelity. By March 1957 Sloppy Joe was on 8:00 to 10:00am.
Fred Hobbs remembers: "KHFS were the call letters chosen by Ralph's dad. They stood for "Kilowatt High Fidelity Station" which meant a lot to the senior Mr. Weagant, an engineer, but not much to the audience. In addition, those of us on the air found the combination of letters with H followed by F followed by S very easy to stumble over if you weren't careful. We complained (mildly) to Ralph about this, since he also was on the air live. He turned aside our complaints saying it wasn't a problem for him until one day on the air we heard HIM say something like "this is, KS...KHFS, Vancouver, Washington." He then said, "OK, wise guys, maybe we should find a different set of call letters." I had already left the station before that was accomplished."
On Thursday June 6, 1957 an ad announcement: "Monday is KEY DAY on KHFS Radio." To promote the event, KHFS mailed out all kinds of Key's with no explanation. Phone lines were jammed with people wondering what the Key's were for! Then on Monday June 10, 1957 another newspaper ad: "You Have The KEY. (a Key was pictured with "KEY" in bold letters) The KEY Radio Station of the Northwest. 1150 on your dial. Portland BUtler 9-2565. Vancouver OXford 3-2565. Formerly KHFS Radio." Warren Weagant: "The call change was desired because KHFS was not easy to pronounce and Ralph thought a catchy "word" would be better."
On June 28, 1957 KHFS became KKEY. Warren Weagant: "The call change was desired because KHFS was not easy to pronounce and Ralph thought a catchy "word" would be better." KKEY's call slogan: "The KEY radio station of the Northwest". By July 1958 Wally Thornton (later on KISN) was Program Director; Gordon Shaw, News Director; Clarence Hecox, Farm Director; Marion Olney, Woman's Director; John A. "Jack" Luetjen (formerly KRTV GM & PD) Commercial Manager & Sam Jones, Promotions Manager.
On September 29, 1958 KKEY switched to a Town & Country Music format after "9-10 KVAN" abandoned its Country format for Rock & Roll. 9-30-58 ad: "KEY Radio. Now the No.1 Town and Country WESTERN Music Station. The only Western Music Station Serving the Greater Portland-Vancouver Area. KEY Radio Top Western Personalities: Shorty The Hired Hand; Ken DeBord; Bryce Howard." (DJ's pictured in that order, so I'm thinking Shorty was mornings; Ken, middays & Bryce, afternoons). Ken DeBord was Program Director & Bryce Howard was still Chief Engineer. Shorty The Hired Hand was formerly on "9-10 KVAN". Willie Nelson also followed Shorty from KVAN but for Willie KEY Radio was a brief stay, after a reputed show helped with a bottle.
In August 1959 KKEY switched format back to Good Music. Ad: "Top Tunes from Albums and Shows. KKEY plays S.M.P. Sensible Music Programming. No R&R or C&W." Al Picinni was Program Director. By December 1959 KEY Radio's studio & transmitter address had changed slightly to 5500 N.E. Fourth Plain Road.
In 1961 KKEY changed to a Top 40 format. Slogan: KEY Radio, The Mighty 11-50. The KBS affiliation was dropped. By September 1961 Ernest E. Crater was Commercial Manager; Bob Van Roy (later KGAR ND, KCRA) was News Director; Lucky Leo (aka Leo Erickson formerly KVAN CE&ND, KWJJ; later KGAR CE, KYTE) was doing weekday mornings & Nat Jackson (formerly on KHTV; later with KISN, KPAM/KPFM ND) was doing weekends. Ralph Weagant also filled in as a DJ when needed and did studio Production.
By October 12, 1962 Johnny Williams (formerly on KBOL, KICN, aka Dapper Dan on KIMN, aka Johnny Williams KICN MD, KTKT, KIMN, KISN MD; later KDAB MD, KRIZ, WABB, KBTR MD, KCBQ PD, KRLA, KHJ, WTAE, KHVH, KHNR OM) was doing afternoon drive at the beginning of the Columbus Day Storm. KEY was shut down at its regular time, sunset and Johnny was just hangin' around KEY, taking it all in. Johnny Williams: "I can remember reading the wind gauge in the station as it showed 100 MPH. I went out to Fourth Plain Rd. in front of the station and grabbed hold of a telephone pole just to see how long I could stand up in the wind -- I managed for several minutes, actually..."
1962-63 Warren Weagant (younger brother of Ralph, formerly on KBPS; later aka Johnny Edwards on KOFE, aka Johnny Holiday on KAPT, aka Sylvester Behr on KGON-1520, aka John Edwards KPAM/KPFM PD, KGO AM/TV) began Saturdays & Sundays Noon to sunset.
In March 1963 Roger Hart (formerly aka Roger Ferrier on KENL, KVAN-910, KENL, KUIK, KLIQ, KEX, aka Roger Hart on KISN, KGAY PD, KGAL PD) began doing afternoon drive. Also by this time Russ Ripley (formerly KLOG PD, KISN; later on KGON-1520, KLIQ-FM PD/MD) was doing mornings and Vic Knight (formerly on KGON-1520) middays. In May 1963 Tom Cauthers (formerly on KGON-1230, KYJC, KRVC, KNND MD; later on KGAR, KGRO, aka T-O-M Tom on KRDR, aka Tom Cauthers KTOH CE, KERG Asst. ND, aka Ted Thomas on KISN, aka Scotty Wright on KISN, aka Tom Cauthers on KISN, KPAM AM/FM/KLSC CE, Collins/Rockwell/Continental sales, KXTC/KQZQ owner, Varian Associates sales, Jefferson Public Radio CE, KBPS CE, KKPZ/KKSL/KPBC CE) began DJing Sunday mornings 6 to 11am, followed by Old Dusty (aka Stan Pintarich, formerly on KVAN-910, KWJJ) 11am to 1pm, who would bring in his old 78 RPM's. KKEY weekdays included Jack Par (formerly on KGRO, KISN; later KDOL AM/FM GM, KAIN, KEEP).
In Summer? 1963 KKEY scrapped Top 40 for a Good Music format. Cal Coleman (formerly on CKOV, later on KXLY, CKDA, CJOR, CKLG, CKVN) was hired as one of the announcer DJ's. In 1964 KEY switched to an IGM Automation System, programming IGM's "The Cosmopolitan Sound" Good Music format. In addition, Doug Pledger programs (from KNBR) were added "Pledger Plays The Classics" a Classical music program and "Pledger At The Opera" featured Opera music. Ad: "Adult programming with an International Flavor. The world's best music from Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Vienna, America, etc. Music with melody along with bits of wit by Doug Pledger. Portland, Oregon's Quality Sound. KKEY......The KEY Station." Slogans: The most refreshing sound in town. KEY Radio, as majestic as the tall timbers, The Fabulous KEY!
In April 1964 Jerry Johnson (later on KYMN, aka J.J. Mitchell on KGAL MD, KEED, KYMN, KASH PD, aka Robin Mitchell on KOL, KING, KOL PD, WRKO Acting PD, WSAI PD, WIFE PD, KYYX PD, KB101 PD/KYTE/KB101 OM, KRCK PD/KYTE/KRCK OM, KRXY PD, KKUR PD, KWJJ-AM/FM PD/OM, KUJZ PD & cluster OM) began weekend mornings, threading big metal automation reels, watching carousel machines that regularly jammed, plus a Noon newscast on Sundays. KEY had no wire service, so stories were cut out of the newspaper. By 1965 KEY Radio's studio & transmitter address had changed slightly again to 5500 N.E. Fourth Plain Blvd.
On March 1, 1965 KKEY became a secondary affiliate of the ABC Radio Network when it picked up "Don McNeill's Breakfast Club" program. KWJJ had dropped the show from its schedule when it switched to a Country format. By October 1966 KKEY was broadcasting a "Continental" music format. KEY Radio described itself as playing "Distinctive Good Music" and went on to say "Total Announcements limited to Nine Minutes per hour." KKEY as also an "NAB Code" station. In 1967 KKEY was granted pre-sunrise authorization of 500 watts. KEY continued daytime with 1kw non-directional. By October 1967 Eugene "Gene" Berg was Chief Engineer. By November 1967 KEY slogan: Better music.
On November 29, 1967 KKEY was authorized to change city of license from Vancouver, Washington to Portland, Oregon. In addition KKEY was also authorized to raise power from 1kw to 5kw and install a daytime directional array. On January 1, 1968 The ABC Radio Network was spit into four new networks. "Don McNeill's Breakfast Club" became part of the American Entertainment Network. KKEY became an Entertainment affiliate, carrying its news at the bottom of the hour. By May 1968 KKEY had opened an additional studio in Portland, Oregon in "The Flatiron Building" at 1226 W. Burnside St. This had previously served as a KEY sales office back to 1967. By October 1968 Ronald "Ron" Hudson was Chief Engineer. KKEY Slogans: The most refreshing sound in Town. Distinctive Good Music. As of November 1968 it was said KKEY was the only fully automated AM station in the Northwest.
Between November 18, & 22, 1968 KKEY raised power to 5kw, using a 3 tower array from its Vancouver broadcast site. A new Bauer model FB-5V transmitter had been installed. After KKEY raised power, the long running program "The Scandinavian Hour" moved to KEY Sundays 9:00am to 10:00am. This program began on Portland radio's KFJR in 1925, moving to KXL, KGW & KPOJ before landing at KEY. "The Scandinavian Hour" on KXL had been hosted by Bob Anderson since 1942. Ralph Weagant also a KXL alumni who had worked with Bob, persuaded him to move his show to KEY. Bob Anderson was originally a KBPS alumni. Another such program "The Italian Hour" with "Rudolfo, your genial host" also moved to KEY from KWJJ where the program had begun in 1958. "Rudolfo" was Agostino Potestio.
On December 27, 1968 "The Don McNeill Show" as it was now known, was cancelled. Immediately after the cancellation KWJJ requested ABC move the Entertainment Network from KKEY to KWJJ, pointing out "Paul Harvey News & Comment" was an Entertainment Network program. Up to this point, original ABC Radio affiliates that previously carried Paul Harvey, could continue, even though they had affiliated with one of the other four ABC Networks. Paul Harvey was growing in popularity and KWJJ didn't want to take a chance on loosing clearance, incase the Entertainment Network was picked up by a more powerful station like KEX, where it might run into trouble. ABC offered KKEY the Information Network affiliation, which KWJJ was jettisoning. KEY decided to go independent again.
On February 6, 1969 the FCC issued a license to KKEY covering the power increase and city of license change. KEY was now a Portland station. KEY Radio also changed format in early 1969 to an automated Top 40 format. Slogan: The KEY to Contemporary music. In 1970 KKEY switched their format to an automated Country format.
Then on October 4, 1971 Jack Hurd (formerly aka "Just Plain Jack" on KLIQ AM/FM, KGAR & 1969 founder of "Animal Aid") became the first talk show host on the station, beginning KKEY's 25+ years in the Talk Radio format. Jack Hurd's program was on the air 11:00am to 1:00pm. The rest of KEY's program day was filled with Country music but this would slowly be fazed out.
On November 29, 1971 two more talk show moderators debuted on KEY Radio. Russ Myer (formerly on KLIQ AM/FM) was on 9:00am to 11:00am. Dave Collins (formerly on KLIQ AM/FM & KWRC) 1:00pm to 3:00pm. KEY slogans: People to People Radio 11-50. KEY two-way conversation. On February 10, 1972 Jerry Dimmitt aka "The Dimmitt" (formerly on KUTY, KGIL, KOOS, KMCM CM, KLIQ AM/FM; later on KAYO) began weekdays 3:00pm to sunset. Also in 1972 Florinda J. "Linda" Weagant, wife of Ralph Weagant became acting General Manager of KKEY when her husband had a heart valve operation. Ralph recovered quickly and only missed a few weeks running the station.
Warren Weagant: "Ralph cancelled his ASCAP and BMI licenses and did not allow music on the air when he started fulltime Talk Radio programming. Only 8 commercials were allowed per hour, 2 minutes each and all 'personal endorsements' by the talk show host, who were also show salesmen. No recorded spots were allowed either...all live, personal endorsements. The only produced, regular type spots were just the ones on the Mutual network. Generally, no guests were allowed on the talk shows. Virtually all of the time was a conversation between the show host and the caller." Moderators were private contractors for their shows. They received 40% of a sale and KKEY, the other 60%. If a separate salesman was involved, the split was 20%, 20%, 60%.
By December 1973 KEY Radio's Portland studio address at the "Flatiron Building" had changed to 1223 S.W. Stark St. In 1974 Mary Pierce began her show on KEY. On August 12, 1974 Alan Hirsch (formerly on KLIQ AM/FM) joined with Jerry Dimmitt to co-host "The Dimmitt & Hirsch Show" 8:00am to 11:00am; Jim Fenwick (formerly KUIK CM, KPOJ, KOL, KGW CM) Portland's first talk show host, did a more laid back program on KEY 11:00am to 1:00pm, than his KGW days. Also in 1974 Craig Weagant (son of Ralph) began Producing talk shows 1:30pm to sunset, Monday through Friday. Producing and call screening were done at the Vancouver studios with moderators at the Portland studios.
In February 1975 "The Dimmitt & Hirsch Show" expanded from weekday mornings to included also Saturdays 8:00am to 11:00am. In Spring 1975 Brad Eaton (formerly on KLIQ AM/FM, KVAS ND; later on KCYX PAD, KXL, KAYO, KPAM-860, KING AM/FM) began Saturday mornings, co-moderating with Jerry Dimmitt one weekend and Alan Hirsch another. Soon Brad Eaton was solo fill-in 8:00am to 11:00am, including an hour of "Buy & Sell".
On June 24, 1975 Fenwick announced he would terminate his program on July 1, 1975. By mid July 1975 the KEY's broadcast day consisted of Country Music 6:00am to 8:00am; Alan Hirsch & Jerry Dimmitt 8:00am to 11:00am; Laura Hall (or) Peter Marland-Jones aka P.M.J. (formerly on KMCM, KROW & KEX) 11:00am to 1:00pm; Jack Hurd 1:00pm to 3:00pm; Dave Collins 3:00pm to 5:00pm; Mary Pierce 5:00pm to 7:00pm; Ed Richter (later KBOO GM) 7:00pm to 9:00pm sign off. Steve Bradley (formerly on KPOK AM/FM / KUPL-FM; later on KGAR) served as Sunday morning producer, engineer and call screener. Shortly after being hired Steve relieved Ron Hudson CE to work on engineering projects Monday through Wednesday 8:30am to 1:30pm. Ron continued producing shows on Thursdays & Fridays, with Bill Mulikan producing on Saturday mornings. Steve Bradley then added Thursdays 8:30am to 1:30pm sometime later.
On August 1, 1975 Alan Hirsch left KEY. Jerry Dimmitt went solo, hours were shortened after a time 8:00am to 10:00am. Laura Hall moved to 10:00am to 11:00am. Brad Eaton was given the Saturday morning co-host position with Jerry Dimmitt. A while later Brad was given the Sunday morning show as well, 6:00am to 8:45am. Also in 1975 KKEY affiliated with the Mutual Broadcasting System's "Progressive" news feed at :55 past the hour. In Fall 1975 Addie Bobkins (formerly on KLIQ, KWJJ, KXRO, KXL, KEX, KEED, KVAL, KPTV, KISN, KCOP) inaugurated Sunday talk shows on KEY when he began his show 1:00pm to 4:00pm. Addie's sidekick was Dallas McKennon (formerly on KGW & the voice of many cartoons). By then Laura Hall had been moved into thr 11am to 1pm time slot. In 1976 Lee Raymore (formerly on KMO, KYXI) joined the KEY moderators.
On May 3, 1976 KEY Radio became possibly the first Talk Station in the Nation to have a caller literally die while a moderator talked to the person on air. Laura Hall was chatting with caller Ruby Nelson, 62 "on the line when she heard a gasp, a thud and excited barking of a dog". Laura Hall on the incident: "The 'on air connection' was open. The audience could hear the dog barking." For 90 minutes Hall tried to rouse Nelson and learn her address. Hall: "I did leave the studio when we got the correct address, and went in with the emergency officers at the Nelson home. It did take more than 2 hours for the call to be traced." Nelson apparently died almost instantly from a massive heart attack. In Summer 1976 Paul Moore (formerly on KVAN-1480) began producing KEY shows Saturday & Sunday afternoons. In May 1977 Laura Hall moved to KNND as P.D., then to KUGN & KAYO, Mutual News as their Paris correspondent, KPNW N.D., KMTR(TV) Managing Editor.
In May 1977 Jack Hurd died at age 59 of Emphysema. Leo "Lee" Evans took over Jack's time slot 1:00pm to 3:00pm. John Cole was mornings 6:00am to 8:00am; Brad Eaton was added to the weekday schedule 8:00am to 9:00am, as well as continuing weekends; Jerry Dimmitt was 9:00 to 11:00am; The Bob Dye Show (formerly on KYXI, later on KLIQ, KXL) 11:00am to 1:00pm. On weekends Mary Kangas (formerly on KLIQ) was added to Saturdays 6:00am to 8:00am. In 1978 Rick Miller was doing a Midday talk show & Mike Caulkins was on Sunday mornings 6:00am to 8:45am. KEY slogans: People to People Radio 11-50. KEY two-way conversation.
[NO DATING FOR THESE HOSTS YET] Al Emrich (formerly KWLK AM/FM CM, KLIQ AM/FM, KGAR PM, KAAR VP/GM), Jim Cuomo, Henryene Edwards, Jack Hammer, Pat King, Frank Marshall, Merv Martin, Stormin' Norman, Owens, Jimmy "Bang! Bang!" Walker (formerly on KGAR), Playboy Buddy Rose (formerly on KPTV).
By March 1980 Dave Collins is on KEY Radio 2:00pm to 5:00pm weekdays. By May 1980 Bill Haslam was doing a Sunday morning talk show. In Summer 1980 Roger Hart returned (formerly on KGON-1520, KISN, Paul Revere & The Raiders, manager and early producer, KGAR MD; later KKUL, KKEY, KYTE, KKSN, KZNY MD/PM, KKAD) doing his first talk show weekdays. The KEY Radio moderators were: John Cole, 6:00am to 9:00am; Roger Hart, 9:00 to 11:00am; Mary Pierce, 11:00am to 1:00pm; Lee Evans, 1:00pm to 3:00pm; Dave Collins, 3:00pm to 5:00pm; Jerry Dimmitt (later on KYXI, KAYO, KTNT, KMO, KAAR, KKEY, KXL, KKEY, Northwest Talk Radio Network PD, KVAN-1550, KKEY, KXYQ) 5:00pm to Sunset & off & Program Director. Weekends featured Ruth Kriko aka Ruthie Kaye. Also in 1980 Mutual's Progressive Network became known as Mutual "Lifestyle". By 1981 Todd Weagant (son of Ralph) began producing weekend afternoons. Sometime later Ron Hudson's son, Kevin Hudson also produced weekend shows.
In 1983 KKEY was granted PSSA - Post-Sunset Authority of 186 watts for the first half hour and 100 watts in the 2nd hour. A power reducer was connected to the main transmitter to switch to these lower power levels. The Roy Masters program was then extended to 5:30pm year round. Also in 1983 Mutual's Lifestyle news service at :55 past the hour was discontinued. KKEY then switched to Mutual's "Comprehensive" news service at :30 past the hour. In 1984 Ruth Olin was a weekend moderator. On September 1, 1985 KEY Radio began carrying a morning block of religious programs. These shows had been moved from KLIQ, when the station became KMJK, a simulcast of its FM sister. By this time KKEY received FCC approval to begin night operation with 47 watts directional. KKEY then purchased a 50 transmitter and began 24 hour operation. KEY continued daytime with 5kw directional. Same pattern day & night.
On May 9, 1987 KKEY President & General Manager, Ralph C. Weagant died. In 1987 Rick Miller (later on KGW, KING, KXLY, KOMO, KGA) returned doing middays. On June 29, 1987 the FCC authorized KKEY to operate its transmitter by remote control from its Portland studios. By October 1987 Lee Raymore was on the air 1:00pm to 2:30pm, 5 days a week. KEY slogan: Portland's Conversation Station. In late 1987 control of KKEY's licensee, Western Broadcasting Co. was transferred to wife Florinda J. "Linda" Weagant, becoming President & GM. Also in 1987 KKEY began carrying Mutual's on the hour news feed.
On November 14, 1988 it was announced "The Flatiron Building" built in 1916 and housing KEY Studios was recently declared a Portland Landmark. In December 1988 Carl Daly was on KEY 1:00pm to 4:00pm and Mike Lee 4:00pm to 7:00pm. On February 4, 1989 "Sue 'The Astrologer' (Owens) began her new show on Saturdays 2:00pm to 4:00pm. On March 16, 1989 "The Flatiron Building" was placed on the National Register of Historic Buildings. On November 21, 1989 it was announced Ed Anderson (formerly on KEX) would begin doing Middays. By February 1990 Carol Simitachi was on KEY Radio 9:00am to Noon, Sylvester Hendricks 2:00pm to 4:00pm & Robert Allen 6:00pm to 8:00pm. KKEY slogan: Talk of The Great Northwest.
On April 9, 1990 KKEY began carrying CBS Radio Sports, Major League Baseball's "Saturday Game of The Week" and later the "World Series". Locally on KEY Pat Bladorn did a 50 minute sports talk show before the games. In 1991 Jim MkKey (spelling correct) was on KEY 6:00am to 9:00am weekdays and KKEY added affiliations with NBC & DayNet. By November 1991 KKEY had shut down its Portland studios at 1223 S.W. Stark St. KEY slogans: Portland's Conversation Station. People Power. By 1992 Tim Jordan was doing a morning talk show on KEY. The show was later moderated by Pam Parson. By July 1992 Roy Masters was on KEY Radio 8:00am to 9:00am via KOPE Medford. By February 1993 KEY was carrying old time radio drama's evenings. By this time Stephen Bradley was Promotions Manager.
On February 15, 1993 KKEY picked up Mutual's "The Larry King Show" Noon to 3:00pm, after KEX refused to carry King after his program was switched to daytime. On June 6, 1994 two syndicated programs began on KEY. Chuck Harder's "For The People" taking over the Larry King slot. King had moved to TV exclusively. "For The People" came from PRN - Peoples Radio Network. From 3:00pm to 4:00pm KEY ran its old time radio programs. Also picked up on this date from Talknet was "Bruce Williams" (formerly on KXL), 4:00pm to 7:00pm.
On July 4, 1994 KKEY celebrated its 40th Anniversary with a special program of remembrances and also broadcast recordings of old KEY Radio talk shows. By September 1994 "Love Makes A Family" with host Bonnie Tinker was on Wednesday mornings. Chastity Bono was once a guest her show. By December 1994 "The Italian Hour" was hosted Lucia Galizia (later on KBOO) Sundays 10:00am to 11:00am. By 1995 KEY had added an affiliation with Westwood One. By April 1995 "The Birdwell & White Show" hosted by Robert Birdwell & Jamison White was on KEY weekdays at 3:00pm.
By August 1995 "The Voice of Homeland" with host Pervez Saleem was on Sundays 1:00pm to 2:00pm. By September 1995 Chuck Harder's "For The People" show had expanded 11:00am to 3:00pm weekdays. KEY Slogans: This is Talk Radio 11-50. KEY Talk Radio. By December 1996 Ronald Hudson was Chief of Operations in addition to Chief Engineer. On January 20, 1997 KEY Radio debuted "Stanford & Friends" weekdays Noon to 2:00pm. The show was hosted by Phil Stanford (formerly with The Oregonian newspaper) with sidekick Mike Johnson (standup comedian). By September 1997 KKEY had traffic reports weekdays on the hour and half hour. KEY slogan: More two-way telephone talk radio continues.
On September 24, 1997 KKEY was purchased by Jeannine J. Wells, aka J.J. McKay (formerly on KWJJ, KATU), President & G.M. and the new licensee of Western Broadcasting Co. for $345,000. (FCC approval on 3-1-98). The Studio building and towers were on leased land from Linda Weagant. J.D. Fort (formerly KUIK Asst. ND, KMJK; later aka Jon Davenport on KEX, as well as J.D. Fort) became Chief of Operations; Stephen Bradley was Public Affairs Director; Theodore J. "Ted" Piccolo, Sales Manager & Michael Anthony, Production Manager. The station employed 5 full-time & 7 part-timers. On February 28, 1998 KKEY became KKGT. Call slogan: Great Talk 11-50, the evolution of Portland Talk Radio. The format was: Conservative Talk. NBC & DayNet affiliations were dropped, as was "The Scandinavian Hour" which was later picked up by KXYQ.
In March 1998 new shows began on KKGT. "Daybreak" from USA Radio Network began the broadcast day, followed by "Bruce Williams", by now on Westwood One and continuing on KKGT. "The Mary Matalin Show" from CBS Radio was picked up. KKGT also had its own show called "Local Lalapalooza" 3:00pm to 5:00 pm weekdays. It featured different hosts each day: J.J. McKay, Bill Sizemore, Dave Anderson (later on KXL, KEX, KATU), Harry Lonsdale & Kevin Starrett.
On November 17, 1998 KKGT ownership was transferred to Frank A. Eisenzimmer (founder of Oregon Taxpayers United) & Myrna M. Eisenzimmer. By February 1999 Bill Deiz (formerly on KCBS-TV, co-currently on KEX, KGW-TV, KEWS, KKSN-FM, KBNP, KVAN-1550) was doing traffic reports for KKGT. On April 18, 1999 Westwood One owned Mutual Broadcasting System was shut down after 62 years of service to the Pacific Northwest. Mutual programming became part of Westwood One.
On June 8, 1999 it was announced Frank Eisenzimmer & Bill Sizemore would form a partnership in KKGT and that KKGT studios would move to Clackamas, Oregon. On June 28, 1999 "The Bill Sizemore Morning News Program" began 7:00am to 9:00am. Studios were moved to 15240 S.E. 82nd Dr. in Clackamas, Oregon. KKGT also installed a new ??????? transmitter. Syndicated shows on KKGT included Ken Hamblin & Neil Boortz.
On July 29, 1999 William L. "Bill" Sizemore & Cynthia B. Sizemore purchased 50% of KKGT for $165,000. from Frank & Myrna Eisenzimmer. Bill Sizemore became KKGT General Manager and is Executive Director of Oregon Taxpayers United. On September 2, 1999 Jeannine J. Wells & Theodore J. "Ted" Piccolo became the other 50% owner of KKGT with Bill & Cynthia Sizemore. These were the new licensees of Western Broadcasting Co. Total estimated station transaction: $330,000. The towers were on leased land from Linda Weagant.
Jeff Mitchell (formerly on KRWQ, KYOS, KCMX, KTMT, KBOY AM/FM, KGON) was Chief of Operations, P.D. & Public Affairs Director; John White, Chief of Engineering & Steve Albrecht (formerly on WNOE, KILO, KAAT, KKGD/KZKS GM, KUPL/KBBT) General Sales Manager. KKGT began 24 hour operation and affiliated with Jones Radio Network, USA Radio Network, Talk Radio Network & Radio America. KKGT slogan: Great Talk all day long.
On March 25, 2000 Kermit Washington (former Portland Trail Blazer) began his Saturday Sports Talk Show 10:00am to Noon. On December 4, 2001 Bill Sizemore purchased KGUY Milwaukie, OR for $750,000. KGUY moved into the KKGT studios. On January 13, 2002 Dave Collins died at 78. By March 2002 Jim Greenfield was doing a talk show on KKGT 2:00pm to 4:00pm weekdays. On May 25, 2002 "Scandinavian Hour" host Bob Anderson died at 83. Also in 2002 Kenneth "Ken" Inlow became KKGT General Manager. On December 8, 2002 Al Emrich died at 89.
On April 29, 2003 KKGT was purchased by Bustos Media Holdings of Oregon, LLC, (group owner: Bustos Media, LLC; Amador S. Bustos, Chairman & CEO; brother, John S. Bustos, Operative Vice-President ) for $1.25 Million. (FCC approval on 8-21-03). The towers were on leased land from Linda Weagant. KKGT moved studios to 24 South A. St., Suite C. in Washougal, Washington. Spencer French (formerly KWBY/KCKX GSM) Vice-President & G.M.; Tom Trullinger became Station Manager; Emilio Barrales, Program Director & Tom Oberg, General Sales Manager. On May 30, 2003 Bustos purchased KMUZ Gresham OR for $1.13 Million. KKGT moved into studios with KMUZ at 24 South A. St., Suite C. in Washougal, Washington.
On August 1, 2003 at 12 Noon KKGT began playing Spanish love songs and became "Romance 11-50". On October 29, 2003 Bustos purchased KKSN Oregon City for $2.8 Million, becoming KZNY. On October 30, 2003 it was announced Portland Trail Blazer games would air on KKGT in Spanish with Arnulfo Alvarez doing play-by-play and analyst with Emilio Barrales.
On November 18, 2003 KKGT became KRMZ reflecting "RoMance" in the call letters. On November 19, 2003 Bustos purchased KGUY Milwaukie OR for $1 Million. In July 2004 Humberto C. Perez became Corporate Controller. KRMZ moved studios to the Mount Tabor District of Portland at 5110 S.E. Stark St. (former studio home of KPDQ AM/FM). On February 2, 2005 Addie Bobkins died at 72.
On February 3, 2005 KRMZ became KXMG reflecting in call letters the new "MaGia" format of Spanish Adult Contemporary music. In August 2007 Gabriel Nacht became Senior Vice-President. On February 1, 2008 KXMG switched to a Regional Mexican format called "Ke Buena". By March 2008 Rick "Ricky" Tatum (former KKHI-FM VP&GM) was Vice-President & G.M.
On May 1, 2008 KXMG switched format once again, this time to "Radio Mison Cristiana" which is Religious Spanish music. On October 20, 2008 it was announced Spencer French had become Vice-President & G.M. for the Northwest Region. In early 2009 KXMG went 5kw non-directional. On April 14, 2009 KXMG became KLPM which means: La PolaMa or "The Dove". On April 26, 2010 Bill Sizemore (former KKGT Co-owner) announced he would be running for Governor for the 2nd time. By October 2010 Juan Carlos Salceda, Program Director.
On October 1, 2010 Bustos Media Holdings of Oregon, LLC began an LMA merger with Adelante Media of Oregon License LLC. On January 17, 2011 KLPM switched format to "Exitos" Regional Mexican. On January 25, 2011 KLPM changed calls to KXET, reflecting its new slogan "Exitos." On August 13, 2011 KXET was knocked off the air when metal thieves broke into its Vancouver transmitter site and sole equipment. On October 26, 2012 KXET returned to the air after 14 months, simulcasting sister station KGDD's "La Gran D" Regional Mexican format. Power was reduced to 1kw non-directional.
A Special Thanks to: Steve Bradley, Tom Cauthers, Jerry Dimmit, Brad Eaton, Roger Hart, Robin Mitchell, Tom Murphy, Steve Taylor, Todd Weagant, Warren Weagant, Johnny Williams & Fred Hobbs.
Back then, you could say and claim to be anything you wanted. Didn't make it true, but stations made all kinds of claims. Back then, most STL's were via telco and there were "grades" of service. The cheapest was a twisted pair. Then an equalized line to 5kHz, which was the norm. A few of the bigger stations would get equalized lines to 8500 Hz or 10kHz. Most stations, and all network lines, were equalized to 5kHz. If a station had their studio and transmitter at the same site, they could have better response, and some did. High level modulation transformers on low power transmitters were not as big as the one in Alfredo's 500kw picture. This was a 1KW transmitter. Most transmitters of that size had the modulation transformer inside the transmitter cabinet.
They could say they were HIFI which meant they were a little better than the rest. Plus, playing the new hi-fi records of the time. It didn't mean what it means today.
I beg to differ that the AM radios of the 50's were not very good. Many weren't but those older ones sounded better than most of the radios of the last 30 years. At least on AM. When FM became the leader for music, they quit making good AM tuners. They also limit the response on the transmitters. KGW had great sound on that old Raytheon transmitter they were using back in the 50's. Before they moved in with tv, they did their broadcasting from the transmitter site and fed the output of the console directly into the transmitter in the next room. Not all stations did that though. When KVAN was at Jantzen Beach, the console was in the same room as the transmitter and they did not have good sound out of that old Collins board and transmitter. Same with KISN when they were from the transmitter. The quality of the sound was not good but teens did not care. It was about the music, not the quality. If you wanted quality, you would listen to KEX or KGW. These were all done with tubed radios and broadcast equipment. Transistors had not made their way to radios, yet.
All of the Programming Content,Commercials,Announcements,Slang,Language,Music,etc of Old Time Radio,Nostalgia(of that period of time)was common is not intended to offend or so but again was of that time and period and was of acceptance before todays standards or how things are taken of political correct stance or views,does not neccesarily relfect the opinions or views or Omni,AM 1700,and other related or owned stations. This is a pure platform to project the relevant history of Music and Recordings for historical value only and will not edit in anyway these recordings or alter them for content,many of them are Public Domain(as staed before)these are accessable for free and should stay free for educational value only. We are covered by BMI/ASCAP/SESAC/SOCAN/SoundExchange and it is NOT our intention to "Claim Owership",but many of these recordings are from my personal collection of Edison Wax/Tin Foil,Wax,33-78-16-45,Cassette,Reel-To-Reel and were taken off from the air at a young age transfered to Computer. AM 1700/Syncopated Radio Network is Copyrighted in Name and properties of Omni Media and Gerald Gaule, SRN is a free service to all as a program fill for any station at no charge.
It was common place for these broadcast standards,please take this in mind when listening before judgement.
Studios of AM 1700-10405 NE 9th Avenue(C-12),Vancouver Washington 98685-5564.-Transmitter located in Feldia,Washington.
Omni Studios-Jerry DeLaunay(GM)Golden Hours Omni Media Networks 3006 SE 136th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 (503) 784-7649
OCFB Radio(Golden Hours Radio)Oregon Commission for The Blind. 535 SE 12th Ave Portland, OR 97214 (971) 673-1588
History of Recording..
History of Recording
History of More Recording Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Cleaning Audio..
1) groove widths have varied over the years and (2) recordings were not consistently made at a speed of exactly 78-rpm until the mid-1930s. Thus, determining both the proper stylus size and playback speed were required. It was decided to adjust the playback speed after first recording onto reel-to-reel tape in order to minimize wear on the discs.
Proper stylus size There was a gradual decrease in the groove widths of 78s over time owing to refinements in the recording process. Proper contact between stylus and groove walls is essential in obtaining optimum sound quality during reproduction. Thus, it is important to ensure that the proper size and shape of stylus be chosen. Also, by choosing the appropriate stylus, one can compensate for different types of wear. For example, a smaller stylus can be used to track lower into the groove to compensate for a record with upper-groove damage. In some instances, tracking different parts of the groove will not make a noticeable difference in the quality of reproduction, but in other cases there will be a remarkable improvement.
Proper playback speed For this project, considering the age and fragility of the recordings, the discs were played at 78-rpm and recorded onto reel-to-reel tape. The speed of the recordings was then adjusted by varying the speed of the tape deck at playback. This way, the records were played only once, and a conservation copy of the disc was made. Though these records are referred to as 78s, the 78-rpm speed did not become an exact standard until the mid-1930s. Even slight variations in playback speed will change the recording pitch and will make a considerable difference to the timbre of a recording. A 5% difference in playback speed is approximately equal to a semitone (i.e. the note A becomes an A flat and so on). A "78" recorded at 76.6-rpm must be played at 76.6-rpm for proper reproduction. Determining the ideal playback speed can be difficult. Having a score indicating the correct key is a good start. Unfortunately, singers had no qualms about transposing a piece to suit their voices, and, of course, not all recorded music is available on sheet music. Also, "concert pitch", now A=440Hz, has varied over the years (and is now in the process of changing throughout the world). As well, stringed instruments prefer sharp keys and brass instruments flat keys. When pitching a vocal recording, the singer's diction, resonance, naturalness of tone and vibrato speed were carefully evaluated.
Analogue to digital conversion The tapes were digitized using a 20-bit analogue to digital convertor. The superiority of 20-bit over 16-bit conversion is clearly audible in low-level signals (room reverberation, quiet passages, etc.) and in the overall naturalness of the sound. It also increases audio accuracy during subsequent digital processing.
4. Digital noise reduction Three general classes of noise are found on sound recordings: clicks, crackle and hiss. CEDAR (Computer Enhanced Digital Audio Restoration) removes or reduces these imperfections with the De-Clicker DC1, the De-Crackler CR1 and the De-Hisser DH2. These units are based on twin 40-bit floating-point processors that process sound in real time (i.e. there is no waiting while the units are calculating the results).
De-Clinking: The benefit of removing high frequency, high-energy transient noises, such as clicks and pops, becomes immediately apparent. The DC1 removes both clicks and any underlying music. It then re-creates the missing sound wave by analyzing pre- and post-click samples and interpolating the results using high-order algorithms. The number of samples that the DC1 examines depends on the length of the click. A short click requires fewer samples (10) than a longer pop (60 to 200) to rebuild the sound wave. The De-Clicker can remove up to 2500 clicks per second per channel in real time.
De-Crackling Crackle is a burst of short, small spikes which is added to the original sound by poor record surface quality, buzzing caused by improperly wired or grounded equipment, or distortion caused by overloading amplifier mixer outputs or digital clipping. These all introduce a harshness to the sound. Crackle is a more subtle and difficult form of noise to remove than a click. The De-Crackler addresses this problem by dividing the input signal into "genuine" signal and "crackle/distortion" signal, and working solely on the signal with crackle. First, the operator determines the the level of "crackle/distortion" present in the input signal, then adjusts the amount of crackle that the CR1 is required to remove. Next, the Crackle Mode is set to either Crackle 1 (sharp and well defined) or Crackle 2 ("grungy" and not so well defined). Finally, the signal is recombined. The CR1 must be adjusted by ear and, if not set correctly, can have a detrimental effect on the sound quality.
De-Hissing Hiss is quite obvious to a human listener but is far more difficult for a machine to detect. Therefore, it is harder to remove than a sharp click or crackle. The DH2 removes hiss by analyzing the tonal, transient and ambiance content of the signal at hundreds of frequency bands and removing the frequency bands in which it does not detect any musical signal. The operator must first adjust the Noise Level parameter, giving the DH2 a rough idea of the amount of noise present in any given signal. Next, the operator adjusts the Attenuation, which sets a maximum limit on the amount of noise that the DH2 will remove at any given frequency. Finally, the operator adjusts the Brightness algorithm to preserve the appropriate amount of presence by controlling the speed at which the DH2 will remove noise. The DH2 is the most difficult CEDAR box to adjust. If done improperly, it can have a very negative result on the audio quality.
The net aural effect of removing noise from sound recordings can be spectacular. Judicious use of digital noise reduction can effectively free music from the shortcomings of its recording medium, uncovering details which were once masked by noise. Digital recording and editing.
Editing was done on a PC-based digital audio workstation (DAW), Pyramix by Merging Technologies, which combines real-time hard disk recording, digital audio mixing, editing, audio-effects processing, and CD-R mastering. The system is based on a card, containing four 32-bit floating-point AT&T DSP 3210 microprocessors, which provides an aggregate peak power of 133 Mflops (Million floating-point operations per second). All operations are executed in 32-bit. The recording function records from 16 to 32 bits.
Once the selection was recorded onto the hard disk, the DAW displayed the waveform so that the sound waves could be manipulated visually. Editing reel-to-reel tape involves physically cutting the medium with a razor blade, then splicing the sections. This process makes it very difficult, if not impossible, to reverse errors. Digital editing involves placing markers at the beginning and end of sections to be edited. The edit points can be moved, removed or altered at any time. While in place, they instruct the DAW on the next action required, without altering the original file in any way. Also, while the equivalent of the blunt tape cut is possible on a DAW, a function called cross-fading also exists. This allows the simultaneous fading-out of one signal while another fades-in at the edit point. This operation can take place within milliseconds (or as long as each clip) and produces a smooth, seamless edit. Recording levels can be changed and fade-ins and fade-outs can be moved or changed at any time.
RealAudio encoding compresses the size of the audio files so that the information can be "streamed" continuously over the Internet at a rate which the user's modem (Internet connection) can handle. For instance, an uncompressed mono .WAV file of Meet me in St.Louis performed by Robert Price (Berliner 1426) is 10,236 KB. Compressed for a 14.4K modem, the file becomes 130KB (1.2% of the original file size), for a 28.8K modem 246KB (2.4%) and a 56K modem 485KB (4.7%). Each selection was compressed three times, for 14.4, 28.8 and 56K modems.
Recording Speeds
"78 rpm" gramophone record formats: lateral versus vertical "hill-and-dale" groove cutting. When Edison finally introduced his "diamond disc" (using a diamond instead of a steel needle), it was cut "hill-and-dale," meaning that the groove modulated on the vertical axis as it had on all cylinders — unlike other manufacturers' disks which were cut laterally, meaning that the groove modulated on the horizontal axis. Pathe Freres also adopted the hill-and-dale system in France, but this was done at the behest of the French government in order to create a deliberate incompatibility, preventing French citizens from playing 'inappropriate' foreign records. In 1929 Thomas Edison bowed out of the record industry altogether, ceasing all production of his disks and cylinders, which he had also manufactured up to that point. In addition, there were several more minor "format wars" between the various brands using various speeds ranging from 72 to 96 rpm, not mention needle or stylus radii varying from 0.018 inches up to 0.042 inches - the current 0.03 inch radius needle or stylus is a compromise as no company actually used this size. The Edison disks rotated at about 80 rpm.
Vinyl Records
Contour AM MAP-predicted
Your Guide to Retirement Homes and Retirement Living -
EARLY in the development of radio telephony it became apparent that it was ideally suited for what might be called wholesale communication--that is, for the broadcasting of entertainment and of educational or informative matter. This type of communication was essentially new. Signal fires, columns of smoke, the beating of a drum or the blowing of a trumpet had been used, it is true, for the general dissemination of information, but with such exceptions as these practically all previous forms of communication--whether by sign, signal, written message, telegraph, wire telephony or otherwise were intended for use in what may be called person-to-person or point-to-point transmission of intelligence. The first extensive experimentation in radio telephony was along the lines of its development for this form of communication--that is, for the transmission of the spoken word across oceans, to ships at sea or to other inaccessible points to which it was not then practicable to provide wires, cables or other physical conductors. As early as 1915, engineers of the Bell System conducted a series of experiments in which radio telephone transmission was achieved from the United States to such distant points as Paris, France, and Honolulu, Hawaii. Out of these early experiments have grown the far-reaching systems of radio telephone channels which now provide regular telephone service between the United States and half a hundred other countries on six continents and the principal island groups.
Poulsen, Marconi, Fessenden, DeForest and others had early experimented with the transmission of music by radio telephone, with results that, in those pioneer days, were considered satisfactory. The first of the broadcasting stations which have survived until the present was KDKA, Pittsburgh. This station presented its first regular program on Election Night, November 2, 1920, the broadcast consisting of a running account of returns announcing the election of President Harding. Other broadcasting stations were opened at various points throughout the country. Originally, their programs consisted entirely of music, talks or other forms of entertainment originating within the studio of the broadcasting station itself. Somewhat later, some of the stations began to go to more remote points to "pick-up" programs of one form or another--music by hotel orchestras, church services, football games and other sporting events, political conventions and similar public gatherings.
For this purpose, wire circuits were employed from the point of origin to the radio broadcasting stations. It was at this point that the telephone companies first entered the field of radio broadcasting. It would have been technically possible, of course, for each broadcasting station to install its own circuits from the point where the program originated to its studio, but this would have proved unduly expensive. In many cases, however, local telephone companies already had circuits running to the points of origin, as well as to the broadcasting studios, and the necessary circuits could frequently be provided by connecting two such circuits to form a continuous link between point of origin and radio station.
Meanwhile, it had become apparent to the executives and engineers of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, the headquarters company of the Bell System, that the development of radio telephony, and its quite obvious usefulness for this new form of communication, imposed upon the Bell System what was nothing less than an obligation to apply to its development the accumulated experience of years of research in the field of wire telephony.
Much that had been learned during the development of a telephone system which by this time was nation-wide in its reach would, obviously, be invaluable in the development of radio telephony, both for point-to-point transmission and for broadcasting. The Bell Systems intensive study of the characteristics of sound, and particularly of speech sounds its research directed toward ascertaining the best methods of transforming these sounds into electrical impulses and transmitting them clearly over greater and greater distances its development of apparatus for amplifying telephone currents which had lost strength, due to attenuation, while traveling over these long stretches of wire--this and a vast amount of other information had been accumulated during more than half a century of telephone development. In a peculiar and very true sense, the Bell System held this information as trustee, and was under the definite obligation of utilizing it in any field of communication in which it might prove valuable in advancing the interests of the public.
It soon became obvious that radio broadcasting was such a field--that there was a public need for this type of service. But just how general this need was, or how pronounced or how permanent the demand for broadcasting service was to become, were questions as yet unanswered. If such a demand were to become widespread and if it were to give evidence of permanency, it was apparent that the Bell System would have not only an opportunity but an obligation to contribute what it could, in view of its long experience in the field of wire telephony, to the development of radio broadcasting. It was almost equally apparent that this contribution would lie not only in the direction of assisting in developing transmitting apparatus for the broadcasting stations and designing improved receiving apparatus, but in the equally important field of linking broadcasting stations with the points of origin of their programs and of connecting stations for simultaneous broadcasting--that is, for what later came to be known as chain or network radio service.
But the participation of the Bell System in any of these phases of the development of radio broadcasting could be justified only by a study of the public need, as indicated by public demand, for this type of service. If this demand was to be limited in extent, or to give evidence of a public interest which would have no permanency the expenditure of effort or capital on radio broadcasting would be obviously unjustified.
In order to continue its research in radio telephone transmission, begun in 1915, the Bell System established, late in 1921, an experimental station known as 2XB. This was located at 463 West Street, New York City, at what is now the Bell Telephone Laboratories. About the middle of 1922, Station WBAY was put into operation at 24 Walker Street, New York City, and shortly thereafter Station 2XB was given the call letters WEAF. Stations WBAY and WEAF were operated for some time, until WBAY was abandoned and WEAF became the Bell System's only broadcasting station in New York. These Bell System stations were used, not alone for the pur pose of continuing experimentation in radio telephone transmission, but for the not less important purpose of ascertaining the public reaction to radio broadcast programs of high quality. These stations became, in effect, laboratories in which were studied certain technical problems and the problem of public demand for radio broadcasting programs. After this experimental work had been completed, Station WEAF was sold to the Radio Corporation of America, ownership subsequently being transferred to the National Broadcasting Company.
Meanwhile, Bell System engineers and scientists had done a considerable amount of work which was to have a direct hearing upon the development of radio broadcasting, and particularly on the use of telephone circuits for program transmission. Before the actual development of radio broadcasting, much broadcasting had been done with the so-called public address systems, in which loudspeakers were used to cover large audiences. In many instances, the speech and music thus broadcast was transmitted over long distance telephone circuits, a notable example being the transmission of the ceremonies attending the burial of the Unknown Soldier on Armistice Day, 1921, when large audiences in New York and San Francisco, as well as that at Arlington, Va., were enabled to listen to the impressive program.
The apparatus and methods developed for use in connection with the public address systems were applied to the new field of radio broadcasting and proved to be invaluable contributions, since it also demanded high quality reproduction of speech and music.
An early instance of the combination of the public address system, long distance telephone lines and radio broadcasting was afforded by the reporting of a football game played in Chicago in the fall of 1922. By means of high quality transmitters and amplifiers located at the football field, announcements of the plays and the applause of the spectators were delivered to a cable circuit extending to the toll office of the telephone company in Chicago. This circuit was connected there to a toll line to New York, where it delivered the telephonic currents to a radio broadcasting transmitter. In Park Row, New York, a truck was provided with a radio receiving set which was arranged to operate a public address system. In this experiment the factors involved were essentially those which characterize modern chain or network broadcasting: a source of the program; suitable apparatus for picking it up; a telephone circuit connecting this source with the radio broadcasting station; the transmitter at the latter station; and finally, the listener's receiving set.
Early in the following year, station WEAF was to participate in experiments which more closely suggested the linking of two or more broadcasting stations for the transmission of the same program.
The first of these experiments took place in January, 1923, when a special telephone talking circuit joined Station WEAF with Station WNAC, Boston. As radio receiving sets of that day were, for the most part, home-made devices with ear phones, and listeners were not critical of the quality of reception, the radio public as a whole was well satisfied with the success of the experiment.
Not so the Bell System engineers who had conducted it. They knew that transmission over the wires linking the two radio stations could be bettered--and that it would have to be bettered if the future of network broadcasting was to be assured. They knew that there is a vast difference between the transmission of speech, as in the case of regular telephone service, and the transmission of music over the same wires. They knew that, for the latter purpose, specially designed circuits would have to be used. They designed such circuits and, in an experimental test in which Station WEAF was linked with Station WMAF, South Dartmouth, Mass., in the summer of 1923, they put such a specially designed circuit into operation. The special apparatus required for the test was removed after the completion of the experiment, but with this "hook-up" the history of modern chain or network broadcasting began.
For it has been--in America, at least--the linking of broadcasting stations by a far-reaching web of telephone wires that has made radio broadcasting what it is today. Not otherwise could the hundreds of broadcasting stations which serve the nation--many of them in small cities, remote from the larger centers of population--have tapped the supply of artistic talent of which they are now giving their listeners the benefit. In no other way could football games and other sporting events, the proceedings of political conventions and other public gatherings, or the voice of a President, speaking from his study in the White House, be brought to the millions of American radio sets. Technical and economic limitations alike would have prevented the evolution of radio broadcasting into anything like the high degree of development it has reached in the United States, were it not for thousands of miles of telephone wire. Stretching from coast to coast and from Canada to Mexico, these telephone circuits have been utilized in binding radio stations together into groups and, as occasion demands, uniting these groups into a single network that is nation-wide in its extent.
At important centers throughout the country, as at New York, Chicago, and San Francisco, so-called "control points" have been established and constitute the nerve centers of the 88,000 miles of wire regularly used by the eleven basic networks. Scores of other telephone buildings house the complex apparatus required for this form of service. These thousands of miles of wire are carefully watched over by specially trained employees totalling between 400 and 500 men.
The part which the telephone plays in making possible the far-reaching radio broadcasting networks which serve America's millions of listeners has been summarized by an officer of one of the large broadcasting companies as follows ("Broadcasting: a New Industry," Harvard Alumni Bulletin, December 18, 1930.): It is to the telephone, not to radio, that we owe the development of the equipment whereby speech and music are made available for broadcasting.
More than this, it is the telephone wire, not radio, which carries programs the length and breadth of the country. John Smith, in San Francisco, listens of a Sunday afternoon to the New York Philharmonic Orchestra playing in Carnegie Hall. For 3200 miles the telephone wire carries the program so faithfully that scarcely an overtone is lost; for perhaps fifteen miles it travels by radio to enter John Smith's house. And then he wonders at the marvels of radio! But what about programs from overseas? Here, indeed, wireless telephony steps in, but not broadcasting in the ordinary sense. The program from London is telephoned across the Atlantic by radio, but on frequencies entirely outside of the broadcast band.
Broadcasting, then, is the child of the telephone; in America it is certainly the child of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. The whole structure of commercial chain broadcasting as we know it today has grown out of the pioneer work done prior to 1926. Telephony has largely created the mechanism of broadcasting.
It is quite possible that the hypothetical John Smith, to whom this writer refers, may be aware that the program to which he is listening in San Francisco has not been carried across the continent by radio. But it is also quite possible that his information on the point does not extend far beyond the vague notion that in some way that he does not understand, "it is done by telephone wires." And to John Smith, and millions like him, a telephone wire is a telephone wire, and that is the end of the matter.
But it is not the end of the matter for the engineers of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. They have learned from long experience that the technical problems involved in the provision of circuits for the broadcasting networks are quite different from those confronted in the provision of commercial telephone service, with which the Bell System organization has long been thoroughly familiar and for which its plant and equipment have been designed.
From the days when Alexander Graham Bell conducted the first of the experiments which led to his invention of the telephone, he and his successors of the organization which bears his name have been students of sound and of its electrical transmission. When confronted with the problem of providing circuits for network radio broadcasting, they knew, from more than half a century of experience that this problem involved factors not encountered in the provision of regular, commercial telephone service.
Telephone wires had, it is true, been used as early as 1877, the year following the invention of the telephone, for the transmission of music. In order to arouse public interest in the telephone, Bell gave demonstrations or lectures in various cities of the East, and one of the features of these was the transmission of songs, cornet solos, cabinet organ and similar musical selections from some outside point to the auditorium in which the lecture was held. In the light of present knowledge of the telephone art, however, it is perhaps safe to assume that these demonstrations though they amazed the audiences which heard them, were reminiscent of Dr. Samuel Johnson's comment on the performance of a dog which he had seen dancing on its hind legs. The good doctor remarked, it will be remembered, that the spectacle was extraordinary--"not because the dog danced particularly well, but because it danced at all"
Imaginative writers--and artists, for that matter--of the early days of the telephone, delighted in predicting the time when entire audiences, as well as individual telephone subscribers, would be entertained by opera and orchestra programs transmitted over the wires. The truth is that music carried by wire, in the pioneer days of telephony, was hardly more than sufficiently faithful in its reproduction to be recognizable as music. As an entertainment feature, its attraction lay in novelty rather than in esthetic beauty.
Since these early days, telephone instruments and circuits have been much improved. The telephone today is quite adequate for transmitting speech which can be clearly and easily understood. Even today, however, regular telephone circuits are not adequate for transmitting musical selections or other entertainment programs. There are sound technical reasons for this. For every-day telephony, the prime requirement is ability to transmit messages easily and accurately and at reasonable cost. The transmission of music and other sounds for entertainment purposes, however, involves much more severe technical requirements than the satisfactory transmission of speech for message telephone service, in order to maintain, for example, the aesthetic values involved in the reproduction of high grade music. In order to meet the qualities demanded for program transmission, it has been necessary for Bell System engineers to develop and provide special circuits quite different in their characteristics from ordinary telephone circuits. Their inherently higher cost is justifiable because of the fact that, in broadcasting, a single circuit is shared by many listeners.
Take the matter of frequency range, for example. For every-day telephony, circuits which will transmit a frequency range of somewhat more than three octaves, starting with middle C, give a high degree of intelligibility so that ideas can be easily and accurately interchanged. Circuits for entertainment purposes, however, require that a range of frequencies more than twice as wide as this be transmitted. The higher frequencies transmitted over these circuits add to the "brilliancy" of music, since more of the high-pitched notes and important overtones are transmitted. The lower frequencies give body to the reproduction. Transmitting these higher and lower frequencies, in other words, reproduces the programs much more naturally, so that nice distinctions between sounds of various musical instruments are preserved.
Circuits used for radio program transmission must also be so designed as to take care of a considerable variation in volume or loudness. In an ordinary telephone conversation, the range of variation in volume is relatively small. When, however, a musical selection, as, for example, a concert by a symphony orchestra, is to be transmitted, the circuit must be arranged so that the weaker passages will reach the radio listener dearly and without "cross-talk" or other undesirable noise. The circuit must also be specially arranged so that when the higher volumes are transmitted, the apparatus in the circuit will not overload and thus distort the musical tones. For these higher volumes it is also necessary to take special care to avoid the possibility of "crosstalk" from the program circuit into paralleling circuits which may be carrying other programs or regular telephone messages.
Provision must also be made for still another factor which, although also encountered in the transmission of speech, is of particular importance in the transmission of music, by reason of the wide range of frequencies transmitted in the latter case. This is technically known as delay distortion. Although the electrical currents on a telephone line travel very rapidly--from 10,000 to about 130,000 miles per second, depending on the type of circuit--there is, on a long circuit, a measurable period of time--though often only a small fraction of a second--during which the electrical impulses are traveling from the transmitting end to the receiving end of the circuit. The different tones or frequencies may travel at varying speeds and arrive at the receiving end of a long circuit at different times, thus overlapping each other and causing a blurring or distortion. Special means of avoiding or correcting this distortion must be employed when long circuits are to be used for high quality program transmission.
The provision of the high grade program transmission circuits now in service has been a gradual development. In the early days of network broadcasting, open-wire circuits were largely used, as they could more readily be made suitable than the cable circuits then available. Later, it became the practice of the Bell System, when installing cable required for its regular long distance telephone business, to include a number of 16 gauge pairs specially located in the cables which were reserved for use in providing radio network facilities.
In addition to providing these special conductors, it is necessary to provide special forms of amplifying equipment or repeaters, capable of taking care of the wide range of frequencies to be transmitted. Various other forms of supplemental apparatus, including special loading coils, are also required.
Whenever a circuit is removed from regular service and transformed into a program circuit, the change involves the loss, not only of the two physical wires which make up the circuit, but of other circuits which might otherwise be operated simultaneously with the regular telephone circuit on this same pair of wires. Thus, on open wires, a change from program service means giving up the use of the same conductors for telegraph messages which would ordinarily be transmitted simultaneously with the telephone messages and often the surrender of two or three message telephone circuits in order to obtain one program circuit. Where cable construction is used, special pairs devoted wholly to program are generally provided, but where, for shorter distances, pairs normally intended for message service are employed, a similar sacrifice is necessary.
It should be borne in mind that, as the efficiency of radio broadcasting equipment and radio receiving sets has been improved, there has been a growing demand for better quality of transmission over the program circuits provided by the Bell System to the broadcasting companies. Circuits which might have been acceptable a few years ago would now prove quite inadequate to meet the requirements of the broadcasting companies today, or those of their millions of radio listeners.
The provision of physical circuits and the supplementary apparatus required to make them adequate to the requirements of radio network transmission has necessitated the investment of large amounts of money on the part of the Bell System. To this must be added still other investment in apparatus required to switch from one station to another as the "layouts" for the various programs change from period to period throughout the day. To this must be added the cost of various forms of control and monitoring apparatus and of circuits set aside for telegraph or teletypewriter communication required in the operation of the networks.
But the provision of this service requires more than the investment of money in machinery--it necessitates the employment of man-power on a nationwide front. At various points along the thousands of miles of wire which constitute the broadcasting network, specially trained telephone employees are stationed, charged with the important responsibility of watching over the circuits, seeing that the quality of transmission is at all times up to the required standard, making the innumerable switches that are required in the routine of changing from program to program--and standing by, ready to change, at a moment's notice from a regular program circuit to a "spare" or alternative circuit if trouble develops in an emergency.
As has been said, the past development of the program circuit service furnished by the Bell System to the broadcasting companies has been a gradual development, an evolution. As radio transmitting and receiving apparatus has been improved, the circuits linking broadcasting stations have had to be improved correspondingly. The Bell System has endeavored in the case of this service--as it always has in the case of its regular message service--to keep in advance of the requirements of the public it serves. To maintain this advance, it must look into the future anticipate, in so far as this is possible, the radio broadcasting requirements which this future will bring; and plan to meet these requirements. A part of the service which it is providing to meet the needs of the present consists of preparing for the needs of the future and of making a reasonable investment to this end.
Money, mechanisms, men--these are the elements which lie behind the provision of the telephone circuits required to make possible radio broadcasting as America knows it today. They are the fundamentals upon which has been built, in response to a public need, a far-reaching public service.
Early network broadcasting activities in the United States emanated from stations in New York City, and primarily served only the northeastern states. AT&T operated the first active network in the country from its flagship station WEAF, beginning in January of 1923. The first coast-to-coast broadcast took place in 1924, with KPO in San Francisco representing the western terminus of the effort. The most far-reaching of these early activities was on March 4, 1925, when AT&T arranged the broadcast of the Calvin Coolidge inauguration to a nationwide hookup of 22 stations. (The early network broadcasts to the West Coast were temporary, however, with connections made over ordinary voice-grade phone lines.) The RCA Corporation also operated a more limited network operation in 1923 from its station WJZ. The broadcasts were transmitted over Western Union telegraph lines, which proved inferior to AT&T's telephone network. (AT&T maintained for itself the exclusive right to network operations over telephone lines, and would not lease its lines for this purpose to any other entity.)
In 1926, an agreement was reached between AT&T and RCA which would have a far-reaching effect on the business of broadcasting. This agreement resulted in AT&T's withdrawal from the broadcast business, and the sale of its stations and network operations to RCA. Also included in this document was an agreement by AT&T to lease its phone lines to RCA for network broadcasting purposes. RCA formed a new corporation on September 9, 1926, known as the National Broadcasting Company. The new company was owned by RCA, as well as two of its parent companies, Westinghouse and General Electric.
NBC's first broadcast on the WEAF network took place November 15, 1926. On January 1, less than two months later, a second NBC network was inaugurated, originating from WJZ. To distinguish between the two separate telephone-line networks, AT&T technicians used red designators at their jack panels for the original network's connections, and blue designators for the newcomer. The names of these two networks were casually derived from these colored cables, so that the WEAF group became known as the Red Network, while the WJZ group was called the Blue Network.
In the beginning, NBC was "National" in name only, as its programs reached only as far west as Denver. In its first years, NBC was unable to set up a coast-to-coast hookup. AT&T had not yet installed broadcast quality telephone lines across the Rocky Mountains.
To alleviate this problem, the NBC Board of Directors voted on December 3, 1926, to establish a third NBC network: the Pacific Coast "Orange Network". They assembled a full duplicate of the New York program staff in San Francisco, and the Orange Network began originating programs for seven Pacific Coast stations: KPO and KGO in the San Francisco Bay Area, KFI Los Angeles, KFOA Seattle (later the affiliation changed to KOMO), KGW Portland, and KHQ Spokane. The seven stations were connected by 1,709 miles of telephone lines.
The inaugural program for the NBC Orange Network was held April 5, 1927, less than five months after the first NBC broadcast in New York. The program originated from temporary studios in the Colonial Ballroom of the St. Francis Hotel, as permanent studios in the new Hunter-Dolin Building were not yet ready for occupancy. The program opened with an address by Henry M. Robinson, the Pacific Coast member of the NBC Advisory Board and president of the First National Bank of Los Angeles. Robinson spoke from the studios of KFI in Los Angeles. The program was then turned over to San Francisco for the broadcasts of music by Alfred Hertz and the San Francisco Symphony, and by Max Dolin, the newly-appointed West Coast music director, conducting the National Broadcasting Opera Company.
On April 11, the network began regular broadcasting with the program "Eight Neapolitan Nights", sponsored by the Shell Oil Company. The initial network schedule was 8 to 9 p.m. Monday and Saturday, and 9 to 10 p.m. Tuesday through Friday, giving the network a total of six hours of programs weekly. (At first the networks operated only in the evenings because circuits could not be spared from the standard telephone service during the busy daylight hours.)
The Orange Network recreated the same programs heard in the east on the Red Network. At the conclusion of a program in New York, all of the program continuity, including the scripts and musical scores, would be shipped to San Francisco by Railroad Express, where it would be rehearsed for performance exactly a week later. Thus, the San Francisco cast was producing such well-known early network shows as "The RCA Hour", "The Wrigley Program", "The Standard Symphony Hour", "The Eveready Light Opera Program", "The Firestone Hour" and many more.
At the conclusion of each program the announcer would say, "This program came to you from the San Francisco studios of the Pacific Coast Network of the National Broadcasting Company." This would be followed by the traditional NBC chimes. The chimes were a part of all NBC programs from the very beginning; however, they were considerably longer and more involved than the later three-note chime. Because they were so long and clumsy, they were shortened to the well- known G-E-C progression heard today. It is said that the notes G-E-C stood for the "General Electric Company", a melodic tribute to one of the network's major parent corporations. The original NBC chimes were struck by hand, but they were replaced in the mid-30's with electronically-produced, perfect-pitch chimes.
Shortly after the Orange Network's inaugural broadcast in 1927, the staff moved into its permanent headquarters in the new Hunter-Dolin Building, at 111 Sutter Street. The NBC studios occupied the entire 22nd floor, while the network offices were located on the second floor. The studio complex included three completely-equipped studios and an elaborate new pipe organ. It was in these studios that most of San Francisco's "Golden Decade" programs would originate. The entire NBC complex was decorated in a Spanish motif; one of its more unusual features was a glass-enclosed mezzanine, decorated to resemble a Spanish patio. It was designed so that a small audience could watch the programs while they were being broadcast. Some of the heaviest users of the booth were the sponsors of the programs, and this experience sparked the establishment of sponsors' booths in network studios across the nation.
Until September of 1928, there was still no such thing as a weekly "coast-to-coast" network program. Even then, the connection between Denver and Salt Lake City was a temporary one made by placing a long distance telephone call. Eleven sponsors reached the Pacific Coast with their programs using this method for a few months. AT&T finally completed the last link in the broadcast quality telephone network in December of that year. The first program to use the new service was "The General Motors Party" on Christmas Eve, 1928. Regular programming began shortly thereafter, and western listeners could now enjoy the original eastern productions for the first time. NBC now boasted a nationwide network of 58 stations, with the potential to reach 82.7% of all U.S. receivers.
With the inauguration of the new transcontinental service, the process of duplicating the programs of the eastern networks in San Francisco was discontinued. Because only one circuit had been installed, however, the Red and Blue networks could not be fed simultaneously. Instead, a selection of the best programs from both networks was fed to San Francisco, where they were relayed to the western affiliate stations. Thus, the Orange Network continued to exist, although in name only.
Even though the duplication of programs was no longer needed, the Western Division staff was not dissolved. It continued to produce additional programs for western consumption only, which were used to augment the eastern schedule. In addition, the trans-continental line would occasionally be reversed, and programs produced in San Francisco would for the first time be fed eastward to the rest of the nation.
The first nationwide broadcast from the West Coast had been the Rose Bowl Game from Pasadena on New Year's Day, 1927, with Graham McNamee at the microphone.
But, this had been accomplished on a temporary hookup over normal phone lines. The first regular coast-to-coast broadcast from the West over high-quality lines took place in April of 1930, with the broadcast of the "Del Monte Program" sponsored by the California Packing Company. Other programs quickly followed. Soon the San Francisco staff was bigger than ever, simultaneously producing programs for local broadcast over KGO and KPO, for the Western hook- up, and for nation-wide consumption. All of these production activities were further complicated by the time difference between the East and West Coasts. This meant that a program for broadcast in the East at 7 p.m. would have to be performed in San Francisco at four, and then repeated three hours later for western audiences. Thus, it was not uncommon to have all three San Francisco studios in use at once: one producing a program for the East Coast, another for the West Coast, while a third was producing for one of the local stations.
Several programs produced in San Francisco within the next few years quickly gained nationwide popularity. Programs such as "Death Valley Days", "The Demi-Tasse Revue", Sam Dickson's "Hawthorne House" and many others became nationally known. Dickson was one of San Francisco's best-known radio writers. He got his start there in the twenties at KYA, writing shows that featured the station manager and the switchboard operator as principal characters. In 1929, Dickson conducted a survey for the Commonwealth Club about radio advertising. Broadcast advertising had not yet come into its own, and there were many who voiced objections to radio being put to such a use. Dickson's survey was revolutionary, in that it discovered 90% of the city's radio listeners did not object to commercials, providing they were in good taste; and, virtually all of them actually said they patronized the few advertisers that were then on the air.
The results of Dickson's survey were indeed revolutionary, but they also prompted a revolution he didn't expect -- he was blacklisted by every station in town.
Sam Dickson fought the blacklisting as best he could. He was still doing some writing for KYA, and managed to do some writing for NBC under an assumed name. By the time NBC discovered his true identity, however, his work had become admired to the point where he was allowed to remain as a staff writer. He wrote scripts for many programs in the ensuing years, including two popular series, "Hawthorne House" and "Winning of the West", as well as police stories and biblical stories for children. He continued with NBC as one of its most prominent writers up into the sixties, and in later years was the author of "The California Story", a series heard on KNBC (formerly KPO, now KNBR) for a quarter century.
The Control Room
Between the studios is the control room in which the control apparatus and amplifiers are located. KGO's pick-up devices consist of double-button carbon microphones, condenser microphones, and a magnetic type of pick-up. The carbon microphone has been in use for a long time and is the most common type. The condenser microphone requires from one to two additional stages of amplification and operates with a potential of 500 volts between the plates. These amplifiers are placed in the base of the microphone pedestal. By means of the magnetic type of pick-up individual control of instruments is accomplished. This is particularly true of the piano. The vibrations of the sounding board are transmitted to a rotatable coil which is placed in a strong magnetic field. The voltage thus induced in the coil is placed on the grid of a special first stage amplifier. When this pick-up is used the piano is controlled separately from the vocal selection, which is taken care of by a condenser or double-button carbon microphone.
Microphone outlet boxes and terminal boxes are placed at intervals around the studio behind the draperies. This allows the microphones to be placed in various sections of the room without a long length of wire being stretched across the floor and also connects the control box on the director's table with the control room.
The director's control box consists of a small key switch which is connected to relays that control the first stage amplifiers. The announcer throws this switch into the "announce" position and the relays connect the announce microphone and its set of amplifiers. While the announcement is being made the senior control room operator prepares the amplifiers for the pick-ups that are to be used in the next selection. After the announcement has been made the announcer throws the switch to the "concert" position and the relays automatically disconnect the announce microphone and connect the proper concert amplifiers and pick-up devices.
By means of a signal light located in the director's control box the announcer in one studio can tell when the number In the other studio is completed and so can proceed with the next part of the program. An interlocking device in the control room prevents both studios from operating at one time.
The microphone circuits from both studios terminate in jacks in the control room. By means of plugs and cords the microphone is connected to the first stage amplifier. Three different types of first stage amplifiers are utilized and are selected according to the pick-up used.
All the first stage amplifiers are resistance coupled and use UV-202A or UV-210 tubes with a plate potential of 350 to 400 volts. The filaments of all the amplifiers are heated from batteries in the battery room. A bias potential of 5 volts is used on these tubes. Each amplifier has its own filament control, microphone current, and microphone volume controls.
The output of the first stage amplifier is connected to either of the two intermediate amplifier banks. This intermediate amplifier bank consists of two stages of 50-watt tubes in cascade. Both of these stages are resistance coupled and use UV-203A tubes with a plate potential of 750 volts. The filaments are lighted by batteries. The plate potential of all the tubes is supplied from a generator in the generator room after being properly smoothed and filtered to eliminate any commutator ripple. The third stage amplifier contains a gain control for regulating the output of the control room amplifiers. The output is coupled by means of a transformer to any one of twelve pairs of lines which connect the control room and the power station.
The control panel contains a radio receiver by means of which the senior operator monitors the radio output. If the pick-up has been incorrectly located and the amplifying equipment will not compensate for it, he signals to the director by means of small electric lights placed on the director's table whether the trouble is in respect to the soloist or accompanist. If possible, the director then makes the necessary change.
The control circuits for the remote control of the plate generator and the batteries are also located on this board, as well as a time signal receiver for re-radiating the government time signals, a small radio oscillator for test purposes, a radio receiver and amplifier for operating a loud-speaking device, and no-click and interlocking relays for both studios with test switches in parallel with the director's control switch.
The no-click relays prevents the usual click heard in shifting from one pick-up device to another or in disconnecting a microphone from the circuit from appearing in the output. The interlocking relays prevent the use of more than one studio at a time.
Three operators are on duty in the control room during all programs. The senior operator controls the grouping of the amplifiers, operates the gain control, and monitors the radio output. The second man takes the various meter readings at the beginning of each selection and records them in the log. He also assists the senior operator when necessary. The third man listens-in on a wavelength of 600 meters and keeps a log of ship and shore stations, continually on the lookout for a distress call, in which event the station would close down. He is also in control of a 500-watt transmitter adjusted for telegraph operation on 300 or 600 meters located in the power station.
Back in the days before satellites, radio network broadcasts had a certain characteristic sound. Every beginning radio announcer's dream was to work for a network some day. Most despaired of ever developing that network sound in their voice.
What they didn't realize was that the network announcers didn't have that characteristic mellow sound in their voices either. That sound came from the telephone company transmission, not from the network announcer's throat.
Listeners sometimes were amazed when visiting Los Angeles or New York how different some of their favorite network personalities sounded when the program originated locally. Even today a quick listen to one of the golden age of radio recordings reveals whether that recording was made where the show originated or whether it was recorded on the end of a network line.
Frequency response was not a major problem in those days of AM broadcasting. Radio network lines had frequency response up to 8 kHz. Telephone company customers paid according to the amount of bandwidth used. After World War II the networks cut back to 5 kHz lines to save money.
Frequency response was essentially flat to 5 kHz. At 5,100 Hz it was 30-50 dB down.
A few stations in extremely small markets used 3.5 kHz circuits. Networks paid for delivering programs to most affiliates. If the market were too small to be worth the expense, the station had to pay for the circuit from the nearest network access point. The cheapest circuit was 3.5 kHz. In a few other cases that was all the telephone company could provide into remote areas.
Considering all the things that were happening to the sound during network transmission, what is amazing is that it sounded as good as it did.
The amount of degradation was a function of distance.On the west coast, programs from Chicago sounded better than those originating in New York.
Even a relatively short transmission distance would impart noticeable network sound. I was surprised to hear it on a network newscast I read in San Francisco rebroadcast from Chico, California, a distance of 183 miles by road. It was audible even on a car radio.
At one time the telephone company played a major role in radio broadcasting. Virtually all studio-to-transmitter circuits and most remote lines were provided by the telephone company. The FCC would not license radio links for broadcast use unless the station could demonstrate that the telephone company could not provide service. Those few radio studio-transmitter links authorized usually were to FM transmitters on remote mountain tops where the telephone company could not provide an equalized 15 kHz circuit.
Only in larger cities did the telephone company provide a facility dedicated to broadcast circuits. In smaller markets you were lucky if you could find a test board man who even knew where the broadcast circuits were located. Often station engineering personel had to show the telephone company installer how to equalize a broadcast line in small markets.
The operative word is man. In the 1950's and 60's, I never heard a female voice while talking to any telephone company technicians.
Broadcasters referred to the telephone company broadcast circuit test board as toll. When television broadcasting began, the same telephone company crew handled pictures as well as sound. Later the television duties were split off to what was known as TOC for television operations center. Audio circuits were handled by what was renamed Audio Operating Center (AOC). We still called it toll.
Most telephone company employees belong to the CWA union. In San Francisco broadcast toll employees belonged to IBEW.
Stations usually bought one full-time circuit from toll to the station for incoming remote broadcasts. Then a circuit would be bought from the remote site to toll. Circuits between telephone company central offices could be bought by the quarter-hour as needed. The crew at toll would patch the various circuits as scheduled which saved stations a lot of money. The telephone company did not charge extra for this service at that time.
A lot of remote lines were routed via toll even though a shorter path might have existed. This allowed quick access by trained personnel in case of trouble.
Circuits were bought either as transmit or receive. Since passive equalizers were used, if no amplifiers were in the circuit, audio could be fed in either direction. Equalization was not perfect when audio was fed in the wrong direction, but it was better than no audio at all in case of a line failure. After the telephone company switched to active equalizers, this emergency backup capability was lost.
Mutual affiliate in San Francisco. In addition to the network audio circuit, the telephone company installed a ringdown telephone to toll. Pick up that telephone twenty-four hours a day and someone answered at toll.
Ringdown telephones were supplied free to all major market network affiliates. About ten years later the ringdown was disconnected after a telephone company budget cut.
In 1960 the station became the west coast hub for the Mutual network.
Radio network circuits between New York and Chicago were called the round robin. They made a big loop from New York to Chicago and then back to New York. Any station within the round robin could feed the net.
Switching from one point on the round robin to another was instantaneous. The loop must be opened at the station which begins feeding. Occasionally an operator would forget to open the loop when starting a feed. The result sounded like a tape echo as the sound went around and around the loop until the operator woke up.
From Chicago to the west coast the network was one way westbound. The circuit could be reversed by the telephone company during a silent period so a west coast station could feed the nation.
Networks allowed thirty seconds for the telephone company to reverse the circuit.
Reversing the network was a major operation. All amplifiers in the circuit had to have their input and output connections reversed.
Starting in 1936 the telephone company would supply at extra cost customer controlled reversing equipment. Reversing the line between the west coast and Chicago caused about three seconds of dead air. Literally thousands of relays would throw. On air reversals usually were done only during newscasts. The east coast newscaster would say something like, "Now with a pause for switching we go to Los Angeles for a report from (name of newscaster)." Three seconds later the Los Angeles announcer would begin talking.
Mutual had discontinued customer control reversing between Chicago and the west coast long before we became the west coast hub. Mutual did use customer controlled reversing between Los Angeles and San Francisco. Some newscasts were fed to the west coast from KHJ in Los Angeles.
Network reversing control equipment at the station occupied two rack units. It had a small two- position rotary switch and red, white and green lights. The same type of lights and switch were used on telephone switchboards built by Western Electric.
The switch turned on phantom power on the network line. This control voltage was repeated from each amplifier to the next all the way to the far end of the network line. If neither end were feeding control voltage, a white light was displayed on both ends. This indicated that the network was unlocked and could be switched to feed from either end. The network audio path did not reverse until the receiving end began to send control voltage. If one end had control the transmitting end displayed a green light while the receiving end displayed a red light.
The network could be reversed only when the white light was on. If the receiving end turned on the switch, nothing would happen while the red light was on.
A few seconds before a hot switch the transmitting end would turn off the control voltage. Ideally the white light would come on at the receiving end at same instant the switching cue ended. Half of the switching time was required for the white light to come on at the receiving end. You didn't want to drop the control voltage too soon because a lightning strike or other disturbance along the line could cause a premature reversal. When the receiving end heard the cue and saw the white light, the operator would turn on the control switch and cue the announcer after waiting for the network to finish reversing.
We would experience line trouble on the incoming feed from the east between once and twice a week on average. Sometimes the network would operate for a few weeks with no problems and then be followed by a dozen outages in a single week.
Much of the circuit was underground cable. It was subject to backhoe fade. A backhoe has been described as the perfect tool to find a buried cable.
The telephone company maintained spare circuits for use in case of trouble on the regular network circuits. These spares also were available for occasional use customers.
Our friends at toll took pride in restoring service very rapidly in case of trouble. Sometimes they had to re-route circuits half way across the country to make good service. Once after a major line failure somewhere in Nebraska, our network service was routed from Chicago to Dallas to Los Angeles to San Francisco. From San Francisco it was routed east to Denver to serve the Mountain Time Zone stations.
If the line failure were west of Denver, San Francisco was responsible for restoring service. If the problem were east of Denver, the problem was given to the AT&T office in Chicago.
The first place San Francisco toll would call when the incoming network line failed was Denver. San Francisco was always happy to let someone else solve the problem. The ringdown telephone at the station would ring and the voice at the other end would say gleefully, "The problem's east of Denver."
This led to a lot of friendly teasing between the station and toll. If we had problems with one of our local remote lines, say from Oakland across the bay to San Francisco, the problem always kept getting described as east of Denver.
The telephone company employees kept a log of all telephone calls involving trouble. At the end of the call they would ask, "How do you sign?" Your signature was your initials. Everyone used phonetics for their initials. I would reply "Fox King" for my initials FK.
Imagination ran rampant. One telephone company employee with initials SJ would sign Stump Jumper. Calls between telephone company employees were logged in the same way. If any question ever arose about who said what and when, the log would tell.
What did Mother Bell do to make radio networks sound that way? Network sound was degraded in five major ways: Harmonic and intermodulation distortion Group delay Ringing Noise modulation. Single sideband carrier transmission problems The distortion was not surprising since the sound may have passed through hundreds of amplifiers on its way to an affiliate station. Since the frequency response was limited to 5 kHz, no second harmonics were heard from frequencies over 2500 Hz or third harmonics from any frequencies over 1667 Hz. Total harmonic distortion on a transcontinental broadcast line probably was in the 10% range. Limited frequency response kept it from sounding as bad as it was. The circuit equivalent of a twisted pair, such as used by the telephone company, is a very large number of extremely small value inductors wired in series shunted by a very large number of extremely small value capacitors. The result is a low pass filter. The Telephone company would compensate for the high frequency loss by connecting a passive equalizer consisting of series capacitance shunted by inductance. The result is relative phase shift. When a large number of these circuits are connected in series, group delay will reach a very high value.
You might also recognize these equivalent circuits as similar to those used in delay lines. As a result network radio signals traveled across country well below the speed of light. Attempts to use existing radio network circuits to transmit audio for early network television programs resulted in loss of lip-synch in as short a distance as between New York and Washington, DC.
All that reactance in network circuits would cause a number of resonant frequencies in the circuit. A transient near the frequency of one of these resonances could excite the circuit into producing a damped wave at the resonant frequency. This was called ringing. The effect was audible on program material.
The telephone company frequently used companders. ( Compander = COMpresser-exPANDER) The signal was compressed on the sending end and expanded at the far end. This increased the signal- to- noise ratio of the overall path. It also meant that the noise level went up and down as the signal level went up and down. The noise was not completely masked if the signal were primarily high frequency. A soprano voice or solo violin usually produced audible noise modulation. Even if the noise were masked, it caused the sound to become muddy.
The telephone company often used carrier circuits for long hauls. To allow the maximum number of circuits on a single pair, single sideband suppressed carrier signals were used. Carrier equipment was prone to all sorts of problems.
The most common problem with network radio feeds was what we called carrier whine. A continuous tone would appear between 30 and 40 dB below program level. Sometimes several of these tones would appear at the same time.
Even after the telephone company started using microwave transmission equipment, radio networks remained on the same old land lines they had been using for many years.
© Copyright 2000, Fred Krock. All rights reserved.
NBC operated two network monopolies: NBC Blue, headed by station WJZ, and NBC Red, headed by WEAF. This situation arose, due to NBC then owning two stations in New York City (WEAF and WJZ). WEAF and the 'Red' Network became the flagship network and offered most of the established shows--and advertisers, and the 'Blue' Network carried most of the sustaining shows (e.g., shows without regular sponsors). How did they arrive at the names 'Red' and 'Blue'? The grease-pencil marker used to trace the routes of the WJZ-headed stations was blue, and as you may have already guessed, the marker used to trace the WEAF-headed stations was red. This was a confusing situation for everyone but NBC and its advertisers, and that was just fine by NBC, thank you very much.
Still with me? Good. Because NBC also operated three other 'colored' networks (no, not that kind of 'colored'): NBC Orange, NBC Gold, and NBC White.
NBC White was NBC's Religious Programming network, also referred to as The Watchtower Network, and operated from about 1928 to 1936. That's 'White' as in 'pure', 'holy', and 'unblemished'. Those were the affiliates that were selling 'goat-gland' extract to financially obliterated, post-Depression, rural listeners during their religious programming to cure all manner of male--and female--maladies, all in the name of jah-hee-zuz-uh (His miracles to perform via goat-gland extract?). One shudders to think what NBC White Network listeners would have thought of ABC's ''The Blue Network' (further below).
NBC's Orange Network was it's West Coast affiliates, KGO, KFI, KGW, KOMO, and KHQ, beginning operations in 1931. NBC also operated a 'Gold Network' comprised of KPO, KECA, KEX, KJR, and KGA, soon after disbanded and absorbed by the Orange Network in 1933.
NBC Red Network
ist of NBC Red Network East Affiliates BASIC EAST AFFILIATES WEAF (New York) CBM (Montreal) KYW (Philadelphia) WBEN (Buffalo) WCAE (Pittsburgh) WCSH (Portland, ME) WDEL (Wilmington, DE) WFBR (Baltimore) WGY (Schenectady) WJAR (Providence) WNAC (Boston) WRC (Washington) WTAG (Worcester, MA) WTAM (Cleveland) WTIC (Hartford) WWJ (Detroit) SUPPLEMENTAL EAST AFFILIATES CBF (Montreal) CBL (Toronto) CMQ (Havana, Cuba) WBRE (Wilkes-Barre) WCOL (Columbus, OH) WEEU (Reading, PA) WFEA (Manchester, NH) WGAL (Lancaster, PA) WLBZ (Bangor) WLW (Cincinnati) WNBC (New Britain, CT) WORK (York, PA) WRAW (Reading, PA) WRDO (Augusta, ME) WSAN (Allentown) WSPD (Toledo) By 1939, NBC's Red and Blue Networks, and the Columbia and Mutual Broadcasting systems, offered nationwide coverage. NBC advertising rate cards of the period listed "basic" and "supplemental" affiliated stations. Advertisers were encouraged to buy time for their programs on the full "basic" line-up (plus any "supplemental" stations they wished) but this was open to negotiation. It was not unusual for Red Network advertisers to place shows on Blue Network stations in certain markets (and the other way around). Supplemental stations were generally located in smaller cities away from the network trunk lines. Such stations were usually offered to advertisers as "supplemental stations" on both the Red and Blue Network line-ups.
List of NBC Red Network Midwest affiliates BASIC MIDWEST AFFILIATES KSD (St. Louis) KGIR (Cape Girardeau MO) KSTP (St. Paul) WDAF (Kansas City) WHO (Des Moines) WIRE (Indianapolis) WMAQ (Chicago) WOC (Davenport, IA) WOW (Omaha) SUPPLEMENTAL MIDWEST AFFILIATES KANS (Wichita, KS) KFYR (Bismarck) KGBX (Springfield, MO) KOAM (Pittsburg, KS) KSOO (Sioux Falls) WBOW (Terre Haute) WCFL (Chicago) WCKY (Cincinnati) WDAY (Fargo) WEBC (Duluth) WGBF (Evansville) WGL (Fort Wayne) WLBA WOOD (Grand Rapids) WTMJ (Milwaukee)
List of NBC Red Network South affiliates BASIC SOUTH AFFILIATES KPRC (Houston) WBRC (Birmingham) WJDX (Jackson, MS) WMBG (Williamsburg, VA) WSB (Atlanta) WMC (Memphis) WDSU (AM) (New Orleans) SUPPLEMENTAL SOUTH AFFILIATES KARK (Little Rock) KFDM (Beaumont, TX) KGKO (Dallas) KGNO (Dodge City, KS) KGRV KRIS (Corpus Christi, TX) KTHS (Hot Springs, AR) KTOK (Oklahoma City) KTSM (El Paso) KVOO (Tulsa) WAPO WALA (Mobile, AL) WAVE (Louisville) WBAP (Fort Worth, TX) WCSC WFAA (Dallas) WFBC (Greenville, SC) WFLA (Tampa) WIOD (Miami) WIS (Columbia, SC) WJAX (Jacksonville) WKY (Oklahoma City) WLAK WOAI (San Antonio) WPTF (Raleigh, NC) WROL WSM (Nashville) WSOC (Charlotte, NC) WSUN (Tampa) WTAR (Norfolk, VA) WWNC (Asheville, NC)
List of NBC Red Network Mountain affiliates KOA (Denver) KDYL (Salt Lake City) SUPPLEMENTAL MOUNTAIN AFFILIATES KGHF (Pueblo, CO) KGIL KIDO (Boise, ID) KOB (Albuquerque) KPFA KSEI (Pocatello, ID) KTAR (Phoenix) KTFI (Twin Falls, ID) KVOA (Tucson)
BASIC PACIFIC AFFILIATES KFI (Los Angeles) KCW KOMO (Seattle) KHQ (Spokane) KPO (San Francisco) SUPPLEMENTAL PACIFIC AFFILIATES KFBK (Sacramento) KWG (Stockton, CA) KMJ (Fresno) KORN KGU (Honolulu) KMED (Medford, OR) KGW (Portland, OR)
Original NBC stations: (18 Red, 6 Blue) Red: WEAF New York (O&O) WCAP Washington (O&O) WJAR Providence WFI-WLIT Philadelphia WTIC Hartford WTAG Worcester WEEI Boston WCAE Pittsburgh WGR Buffalo WOC Davenport WTAM Cleveland WWJ Detroit WSAI Cincinnati KSD St. Louis WCCO Minneapolis WGN-WLIB Chicago WCSH Portland, ME WDAF Kansas City Blue:
WJZ New York (O&O) WBZ Springfield WBZA Boston KDKA Pittsburgh KYW Chicago WGY Schenectady, NY
NBC Blue Network
During the 1930s and 1940s, the Blue Network was divided into groups of stations. The core group of stations was known as "Basic Blue", and covered the Northeast United States/New England and portions of the Upper Midwest, around the Great Lakes area. The Southern Blue Network covered the Deep South, the Mountain Blue Group the Mountain states, the Pacific Coast Blue Network the Pacific Coast states, and the Southwestern Blue Group the Oklahoma-Texas region.
Basic Blue WJZ New York WBZ Boston WBZA Springfield WEAN Providence WICC Bridgeport WFIL Philadelphia WBAL Baltimore WMAL Washington WSYR Syracuse WHAM Rochester WEBR Buffalo KDKA Pittsburgh WHK Cleveland WSPD Toledo WXYZ Detroit WOWO Ft. Wayne WENR Chicago KWK St. Louis WMT Cedar Rapids WTCN Minneapolis-St. Paul KSO Des Moines KOIL Omaha WREN Kansas City WLW Cincinnati Southern Blue WMPS Memphis WSGN Birmingham WAGA Atlanta WDSU New Orleans WJBO Baton Rouge Rocky Mountain Blue KVOD Denver KLO Ogden KUTA Salt Lake City Pacific Coast Blue KGO San Francisco KECA Los Angeles KEX Portland KJR Seattle KGA Spokane KFSD San Diego KTMS Santa Barbara Southwestern Blue KTOK Oklahoma City KGKO Ft. Worth-Dallas KXYZ Houston. Other Blue Network basic stations in 1939 were WABY (Albany, New York); WJTN (Jamestown, New York); WRTD (Richmond, Virginia); WLEU (Erie, Pennsylvania); CFCF (Montreal, Quebec) and WMFF in Plattsburgh, New York.
Early history
The Blue Network can be dated to 1923, when the Radio Corporation of America acquired WJZ, Newark from Westinghouse (which had created the station in 1921 and moved it to New York City in May of that year. When RCA commenced operations of WRC, Washington on August 1, 1923, the root of a network was born, though it did not operate under the name by which it would later become known. Radio historian Elizabeth McLeod states that it would not be until 1924 that the "Radio Group" formally began network operations.
The core stations of the "Radio Group" were RCA's stations WJZ and WRC; the Westinghouse station WBZ, then in Springfield, Massachusetts; and WGY, the General Electric station in Schenectady, New York. RCA's principal rival prior to 1926 was the radio broadcasting department of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company. AT&T, starting in 1921, had been using this department as a test-bed for equipment being designed and manufactured by its Western Electric subsidiary.
The RCA stations operated at a significant disadvantage to their rival chain; AT&T used its own high-quality transmission lines, and declined to lease them out to competing entities, forcing RCA to use the telegraph lines of Western Union, which were not as well calibrated to voice transmission as the AT&T lines.
Nevertheless, the WJZ network sought to compete toe-to-toe with the AT&T network, which was built around WEAF (today's WFAN). For example, both stations sent announcer teams to cover the 1924 Democratic National Convention, which was held in Madison Square Garden in New York City. Promotional material produced in 1943 claimed certain "firsts" in broadcasting by WJZ, such as the first educational music program in April 1922, the first World Series broadcasts in 1922, and the first complete opera broadcast, The Flying Dutchman, from the Manhattan Opera House.
RCA (as well as its consortium partners General Electric and Westinghouse) were to receive a break in 1926, when AT&T made a corporate decision to exit the broadcasting business and focus on its telecommunications business. The first step by AT&T was to create the Broadcasting Company of America on May 15, 1926, to hold its broadcasting assets. As reported in the press, this move was due to the growth in the radio broadcasting activities of AT&T and the special issues related thereto, though it would appear that subsequent activities in disposing of the assets of BCA may have also played a role in the decision.
AT&T did in fact subsequently sell WEAF to RCA for $1 million in July 1926, a price that newspaper reports indicated was a substantial premium over what other stations were commanding in the marketplace, and represented a recognition of the status of WEAF in broadcasting, as well as its access to AT&T's lines. Indeed, the negotiations for the sale may have taken place very shortly after the creation of BCA, as Folder 129 in the NBC History Files at the Library of Congress contains a contract of sale for WEAF dated July 1, 1926.
The Oakland Tribune stated that 4/5ths of the purchase price of WEAF could be attributed to good-will and the line access. On July 28, 1926, the Washington Post reported in a front-page story that RCA had acquired WCAP. The Oakland Tribune reported the same day that WCAP had departed the field, and WRC would be operating on the frequency that they had shared, which was 640 AM.
As part of the reorganization of the broadcasting assets in the wake of the acquisitions, on September 13, 1926, the formation of the National Broadcasting Company was announced via newspaper advertisements, and on November 15, 1926 NBC's first broadcast was made.
This first broadcast on November 15, 1926 marked the de facto formation by NBC of the Red Network from the WEAF network assets, using WEAF as the "key station"; this network in eventual popular image tended to broadcast the most popular entertainment programming. RCA merged its former radio operations into NBC, and on January 1, 1927, WJZ became the "key station" of the Blue Network when its network switch operations began this network, again in eventual popular image, tended to place its focus more on news and public affairs programming, as well as the "sustaining", or non-sponsored shows.
The Decatur Review (Illinois) for Sunday, December 12, 1926 reported the following in an article describing a broadcast to be sponsored by the Victor Talking Machine Company and aired the following New Year's Day, January 1, 1927, which is a description of this first Blue Network broadcast—note that it makes it clear that January 1, 1927 marked the debut of the Blue Network:
"TWO BIG NETWORKS: The network to be used for the first concert will consist of a combination of chains of stations affiliated with WEAF and WJZ, New York. It is also announced that this opening Victor program inaugurates a new chain system to be operated by the National Broadcasting Company, with WJZ as the "key" station. This new chain, which will be known as the "blue" network, will allow simultaneous broadcasting from WJZ through WBZ, Springfield and Boston, KDKA, Pittsburgh, and KYW, Chicago. For broadcasting of the first program, therefore, the "blue" network will be joined with the "red" network, as the WEAF chain is designated, as well as other stations in various cities. Following the New Year's night program, the concerts will be given bi-monthly, through the "blue" network.
Allegedly, the color designations came from the way the networks were represented on maps, with red lines (or pushpins) denoting the WEAF network circuits, and blue the WJZ circuits
The Red and Blue Networks shared a common pool of engineers and facilities, and would, on occasion, broadcast the same events. There are two early examples, from the biggest news events of 1927. On June 20, 1927, both of the NBC networks covered the return of Charles Lindbergh to America from his trans-Atlantic flight, star announcer Graham McNamee doing the honors. Three months later, a combined hookup of 67 stations on the two networks presented the second Dempsey–Tunney fight, broadcast by McNamee and NBC colleague Phillips Carlin. See Elizabeth McLeod's discussion of surviving NBC broadcast material from this era.
Advertisement placed by the Enna Jettick Shoe Company promoting the appearance of Sir Harry Lauder on its NBC Blue program, December 1, 1929. Note that the text implies that the NBC Blue, NBC Orange (West Coast) and NBC Red networks were all participating in the broadcast.
A slightly later example of cooperation came on the evening of Sunday, December 1, 1929, when the famed "Laird of the Music Halls", Sir Harry Lauder, appeared on a coast-to-coast hookup that originated from KFI in Los Angeles (later an NBC Red station, but at this time part of NBC's West Coast "Orange Network"), but was distributed by WJZ, which, as noted, was the key station of the Blue Network; advertisements suggest that certain NBC Red stations, as well as stations in the Orange Network, supplemented the network. A description of this broadcast is contained in a 1930 pamphlet put out by the Enna Jettick Shoe Company Enna Jettick sponsored the first of Lauder's performances that night on its "Enna Jettick Melodies" show, which was followed later by another performance during the time ordinarily used by The Collier Hour.
At least as late as January 1939, in spite of the fact that by this time NBC was seeking to differentiate the images of its NBC Red and NBC Blue networks (see below), it would still arrange for special, joint broadcasts, such as a special two-hour presentation of the "The Magic Key of RCA" musical program (normally an NBC Blue program, sponsored by RCA's Victor records division) entitled "Salute to 1939.
Ironically, even though the Blue Network generally was not given the more popular programs, it was the network that broadcast Amos 'n Andy at the height of its popularity in the early 1930s, when on average over half of the nation's radio audience would tune into the show.
During the 1932–1933 season, Standard Oil of New Jersey (Esso) sponsored an unusual program, the Five-Star Theater, which each weeknight presented a show in a different format. The marquee show in this cycle was Flywheel, Shyster, and Flywheel, which starred Groucho Marx and Chico Marx. Considering the show's relatively early (7:30 p.m. ET) time slot, it did rather well in the ratings,but it could not compete with the much stronger ratings produced by Esso's arch-rival Texaco, which sponsored Ed Wynn on NBC Red, and the show ended after one year.
More commonly, the Blue Network would operate as a quasi-"farm team" for the Red Network, in terms of entertainment programs. Bob Hope (in 1935 and again in 1937), Jack Benny (in 1932), Fibber McGee and Molly (in 1935), and Information, Please! (in 1938) are all examples of shows that debuted on the Blue Network before eventually transitioning over to larger audiences on the Red Network. On occasion, shows would make brief stops at NBC Blue before moving elsewhere, such as the Lux Radio Theatre (1934–5) and Will Rogers' program (1933), both of which would move to CBS.
At some level, the Blue Network was known in the late 1920s and early 1930s for its children's programming. There are at least two volumes extant, from an Akron-based publishing house, which are collections of stories which purport to have been part of Blue Network programs. A copy of one, in the collection of E.O. Costello, shows a cover with two children listening to a late 1920s-style radio, from which shimmering images of fairy-tale characters are emerging. Other than the title (and the radio on the cover), the precise nature of the ties to the Blue Network is not known; the book does not even make direct reference to the National Broadcasting Company. It can also be said that this is an indication that the Blue Network had a well-established identity of its own by 1929.
The descriptions of the material contained in the NBC History Files at the Library of Congress appear to indicate that at some level, there was discontent with the way NBC was managing the Blue Network vis-à-vis the Red Network. For example, one folder in the NBC History Files contains a three-page letter dated June 28, 1934, from station WSYR in Syracuse, New York, which complains of the neglect of the Blue Network in favor of the Red Network. This point can said to be reinforced firstly by a memorandum dated September 18, 1935, in which the Blue complained about its lack of access to broadcasts of the World Series, and secondly by a letter dated shortly after that, on October 5, 1935, which is a communication from Hearst Radio complaining that Amos 'n Andy and the Al Pearce programs had been moved from the Blue Network to the Red Network, and complaining in general about the weakness of the Blue's programming.
Indeed, the NBC History Files contain a February 1937 in-house memorandum so caustic of the performance of the Blue Network that the author's name was redacted from the document.
A significant issue with the NBC Blue Network may have been its size. It started, in January 1927, with 7 stations, had grown to 17 by the end of 1929, but still had only 33 stations by 1937.This would have made it significantly smaller than its rivals. In 1938, Mutual had 107 affiliates, and CBS had 114; the Blue Network, by contrast, was not able to blanket the United States when NBC Red sold out its time, with the result that during 1937–1938, the Blue Network's revenues were generally falling, while NBC Red's increased.
Radio historian Elizabeth McLeod has noted that as of 1938, NBC had 23 stations in its core "Basic Red" group, and 24 in its "Basic Blue" group, with 107 stations that could be Red or Blue depending on the needs of a sponsor the relative ratings (and thus revenues) for NBC Red programs versus NBC Blue counterparts suggests that sponsors chose to use Red more often than Blue.
Perhaps more in line with the common perception of the Blue Network as a smaller, but more high-brow and public affairs-centered network was the fact that it was the original home of the NBC Symphony Orchestra broadcasts, led by Maestro Arturo Toscanini.
In a similar vein, one of the Blue Network's longest running programs was America's Town Meeting of the Air, a current-affairs discussion program. Both Lowell Thomas and Walter Winchell's news programs were also broadcast over the Blue Network. Both of these shows were the Blue's highest rated programs in the late 1930s and early 1940s.
In an interesting variation on the talent shows hosted by Major Bowes, the Sherwin-Williams paint company sponsored the Metropolitan Opera Auditions of the Air for a number of years on Sunday afternoons in the 1930s and 1940s, in which singers competed for a chance to win contracts with the famed opera troupe. The National Farm and Home Hour, a show backed for many years by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, was one of the Blue Network's standout daytime programs, and would be a part of its lineup from 1929 until March 1945, when the program shifted to NBC.
Along with the NBC Symphony Orchestra broadcasts, the Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts were part of the "crown jewels" of NBC Blue. A sober, dignified pamphlet issued by the network in 1937stated that the broadcasts were under RCA sponsorship, and "[t]hrough the medium of nationwide NBC Network broadcasting, Grand Opera has been given to the entire nation. No longer is it reserved for the privileged few – now even the most isolated listeners throughout the United States are able to enjoy the world's finest music at their own firesides. The National Broadcasting Company (...) is proud to be the means of bringing the Metropolitan Opera to American radio listeners." The pamphlet notes that 78 stations broadcast these opera performances in 1937, and that reception for the program was "nationwide", something moderately unusual for an NBC Blue broadcast.
Radio historian Elizabeth McLeod has suggested, aside from a brief period where NBC Red and NBC Blue had different chime-sequences in the late 1920s and early 1930s, the two networks were *not* differentiated for many years, which would certainly be consistent with the roster of shows described above. She points out, with some justice, that NBC Red also broadcast a number of high-brow programs such as The Voice of Firestone, The Atwater Kent Hour, and the Cities Service Concerts. Furthermore, she points out that until the 1936–1937 period, the "back office" support for the networks was the same, and often stations would shift from one network to another, depending on sponsor needs.
It was only when the Federal Communications Commission began investigating network practices, McLeod believes, that efforts were made by RCA to differentiate the two networks, and to fully position NBC Blue as a high-brow/public affairs network. (In the same light, it has been suggested that the congressional pressure was the real reason the NBC Symphony Orchestra was created.)
The NBC History Files at the Library of Congress lend support to the notion that NBC was gradually groping for a way to differentiate the Red Network from the Blue Network. For example, they contain a confidential memorandum, dated May 13, 1936, which sets forth a network policy against mixing the Red and Blue network stations. (Compare and contrast this with the way the Harry Lauder broadcast of 1929 was handled, above.) There also exists an October 1938 sales force memorandum, which contains talking points on how to differentiate the Blue Network from the Red Network and CBS.
Even as far back as December 1932, NBC had set forth a policy banning specific references not only to CBS, but even to the Red Network. Of note is the fact that NBC began to step up efforts to expand the network; while it had 33 stations in 1937, this total had nearly tripled by January 1941, when the network had 92 stations coast to coast.
These efforts to expand the network are evidenced by an NBC publication in late 1936, Great and Growing Greater, which described efforts to increase both the size and quality of Blue Network stations.[48] Among the improvements cited and proposed were increasing the broadcast power of WJZ and KDKA to 50,000 watts each, adding new stations to the group such as WEAN, WICC and WEBR, adding a Pacific Coast network (with KGO, KECA, KFSD, KEX, KJR and KGA) and expanding the daytime power of such stations as KOIL, KWK and KSO. This ad campaign, in a booklet tipped into the book, also showed a lengthy list of sponsors that had purchased Blue Network time. As the book stated: "All of these additions and improvements are daily increasing the effectiveness of the NBC Blue Network. All contribute considerably to the listener's pleasure and to the advertiser's sales results."
In the months leading up to the January 1942 spinoff of the Blue Network, NBC undertook vigorous steps to create separate brand images for the Red and Blue Networks. To a certain extent, this had been going on since at least the summer of 1939, when Time magazine indicated that NBC was undertaking an extensive build-up of NBC Blue.
In both the fall of 1937, and the fall of 1941, NBC would specifically identify a program as being broadcast on the "Red Network of the National Broadcasting Company", and at least in the fall of 1941, would have a similar tag for the Blue Network. An example of this buildup comes in "Alice in Sponsor-Land", a publication put out by RCA some time in mid-1941 to market that network's shows.
This book focuses squarely on the Red Network, describing its entertainment programming, without any reference to the Blue Network. Above the lineup of stations in the back of the volume is the tag-line: "This is the Red Network of the National Broadcasting Company." In addition, throughout the book are slogans such as "Any time is Good Time on NBC Red!" This book, in part, demonstrates exactly how NBC differentiated the Red Network from the Blue Network in the fall of 1941, when, as noted, the Blue Network was still a part of NBC.
What follows are some examples of the programming on NBC Blue that illustrate the gradual shift in tone. The official website for Helen Hayes shows a number of programs that she did for NBC Blue during this time, including a Eugene O'Neill play cycle in August 1937, two different dramatic series of her own in 1935–1936 (one sponsored by General Foods), and an appearance on a Blue series in 1940, one which brought famous people who would explain why a particular book has been their favorite.
The "preview" section of the November 28, 1938 edition of Time gives some idea of the kind of programming that the Blue Network carried. On Friday, November 25 at 4 p.m., it carried a speech by then-Secretary of State Cordell Hull. Later that night, it carried the welterweight championship fight from Madison Square Garden, followed by Wagnerian opera from Chicago's Lyric Opera. Saturday, November 26 shows that the Blue carried both the Army–Navy football game and the NBC Symphony Orchestra. The Town Meeting of the Air on Thursday night carried a debate among economists as to whether an economic plan for world peace was possible.
For one season in the early 1940s, a high-profile sponsored program on the Blue was The Cavalcade of America, a show dramatizing historical events which was sponsored by DuPont. The show, which debuted in 1935 on CBS and moved to the Blue in January 1940,was created at a time when the firm was under attack for being, in effect, a "merchant of death", and this show, which focused on American historical figures, was one way DuPont tried to burnish its image.
Certainly, the show had high production values, as can be witnessed by its use of Raymond Massey for a show in February 1940 on Abraham Lincoln, as described in the February 26, 1940 issue of Time. It was also known for the use of university professors to vet the historical accuracy of the stories, as well as scripts by future Pulitzer Prize-winner Arthur Miller.(This show would eventually stay with NBC Red and NBC, starting in 1941, and the network would continue to broadcast the show even into the age of television).
A poignant example of the Blue Network's counterprogramming comes on the night of Sunday, May 4, 1941. The network carried an address by exiled Lithuanian president Antanas Smetona at 7:45 p.m., where he was addressing a mass rally in Chicago. Given that NBC Red was, at the same time, broadcasting the popular Fitch Bandwagon radio program (on right after Jack Benny), one wonders how many people tuned in to hear this statesman speak of the tragic fate of his nation.
An interesting perspective can be seen on one of the most dramatic days in the history of network radio. On the morning/afternoon of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, while the first attack wave was over Oahu, NBC Blue was broadcasting The Inspector General, as part of its Great Plays program, while NBC Red was broadcasting a program with popular bandleader Sammy Kaye. At 4 p.m., ET, the Blue's broadcasts of the National Vespers was interrupted by various news reports. Later on in the evening, at 6:30 p.m. and 6:45 p.m., Drew Pearson's and Eleanor Roosevelt's regular broadcasts are heard, followed at 7 p.m. by a news roundup show that competed with Jack Benny, and later on Bible Week opposite the Chase and Sanborn Hour with Edgar Bergen. (The Blue did have the popular Inner Sanctum mystery anthology series later that night at 8:30, followed in turn by its number one show with Walter Winchell.) Lastly, of interest to those who may recall the satiric references in Warner Bros. cartoons of the era, at 10 p.m., the Blue carried The Goodwill Hour with John J. Anthony, dispensing advice to those who sought it, and who presumably were not tuned into Phil Spitalny's orchestra on the Red network.
Specific Blue Network programs While space limitations prevent a detailed overview of all of the programming on the Blue Network during its 1943–1945 period, there are a few examples of programming that can be cited to show how the Blue was striving to reach beyond its previous reputation, and compete head-on with CBS and NBC as a stand-alone network. One ambitious broadcast, copies of which are generally available to collectors of old-time radio broadcasts, was a special two-hour program broadcast on Christmas Day, 1944. Entitled "Christmas on the Blue", the show was emceed by Gracie Fields, and featured, among other stars, Joe E. Brown, The Andrews Sisters, Ed Wynn, Paul Whiteman and others. The show also featured broadcasts of overseas servicemen talking to their loved ones at home, something slightly unusual for the era.
One of the pairings on this special program involved Wendell Niles, a long-time announcer on many radio shows, including Bob Hope's. The Blue Network gave him and partner Don Prindle a comedy series, Niles and Prindle, which is referenced in the special as being scheduled for a debut the following month. Little can be found regarding this show, other than it involved two friends "who argued about everything", and had a brief life in 1945.
It was certainly most unusual for the Blue to attempt to convert a long-time announcer into a featured comedy star, and in this sense, "Niles and Prindle", if not unique (given that Graham McNamee was the "Perfect Foil" to Ed Wynn), it must be said to be at least quite singular.
Of some interest to animation fans is the existence of a show called Nitwit Court, which sought to do to John J. Anthony's The Goodwill Hour what It Pays to Be Ignorant did to Information, Please!. Host Ransom Sherman would pose problems to a jury consisting of Arthur Q. Bryan, as "Willow", a man with a lisp, Mel Blanc, as "Hornblower", a fumbling motorboat owner, and Sara Berner as "Bubbles Lowbridge", a not terribly bright woman.
Radio History
Red and Blue Networks (McLeod)
Date: Tue, 15 Feb 2000 18:50:53 -0500 From: Elizabeth McLeod To: Subject: Re: A Red and Blue Primer
I have read in many of the postings the Blue and Red Networks mentioned Could anyone provide some information on these networks? I know nothing about them.
A common question with a rather complex answer -- but here is a basic rundown on Red and Blue:
Both of these networks were based on networks that existed prior to NBC's formation in 1926 -- the claim by NBC to be "the first network" is true only if one interprets it as meaning NBC is descended from "the first network." The NBC Red network was the direct descendent of the original Red Network operated by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, which began operation on a part time basis over six stations in 1924, and was running a sixteen-hour-a-day schedule to seven stations and part time service to twelve others by the time the operation was taken over by NBC in November 1926. The AT&T station WEAF, New York originated most of the programming for the original Red network.
There are various stories of how the "red network" was named, some relating to colored lights or patchcords -- but probably the most reliable account comes from AT&T historian William Banning, who stated in his 1946 history of WEAF that the practice originated from the colored pencil lines used to trace the network circuits on the AT&T long-lines maps.
The "Blue Network," meanwhile, is an outgrowth of what was most often called "the Radio Group Network," formed in 1924 by the alliance of stations owned by the Radio Corporation of America -- WJZ, New York and WRC, Washington; Westinghouse - WBZ in Springfield, Mass.; and General Electric -- WGY, Schenectady. Although each of these stations was capable of contributing quality programming to the network -- WGY was the first station in the US to regularly feature radio drama -- the Radio Group was unable to secure favorable telephone circuits for its network, nor was it able to secure paying sponsors to the extent that the Red network did so. WEAF and WJZ were aggressive, bitter rivals during these years -- and this attitude spread over to the respective networks.
The acquisition of WEAF by the newly-formed RCA subsidiary NBC in 1926 changed the situation. The plan had always been to continue both networks under a common corporate control, and the Radio Group network formally became the NBC Blue network on 1/1/27. For the first half of 1927, service to the Blue network was limited -- but on 7/17/27 full time service was offered for the first time on all three NBC chains -- Red, Blue and the west-coast Orange network (Until the early 1930s, Red and Blue extended only as far west as Denver, requiring a separate network to serve the Western stations.)
NBC Red and NBC Blue were never separate parts of the National Broadcasting Company. The networks shared a common sales force, a common production staff, common studio and technical facilities, and in fact only a few "basic" stations were permanently assigned to either the Red or the Blue network full time. Other affiliates could be shifted between the chains at the whims of a sponsor. Some historians have argued that Red was always the "popular programming" network and Blue was always "cultural," somewhat in the manner of the BBC's old "Light Programme" and "Third Programme" arrangement -- but this isn't really true. There was no evident "separate programming philosophy" for Red and Blue before 1938.
Federal regulators began to wonder what the rationale was for having two networks, and whether this could be considered a monopolistic practice. In 1938, the FCC began a series of hearings investigating business practices of the radio networks, and in 1941 published its findings in the landmark "Report on Chain Broadcasting." In this document, the Commission determined, among other findings, that the operation of more than one network by a single corporation was not conducive to competition, and thus not in the public interest. The Commission thus required that NBC divest itself of one of the two chains.
On 12/8/41, the Blue network was spun off from NBC into a separate company under RCA ownership -- Blue Network Company, Inc. -- as the first step in compliance with the FCC ruling. RCA continued to operate the Blue Network until a buyer could be found -- until it sold the network for $8 million to Edward J. Noble, the founder of Life Savers, Inc., and at that time the owner of WMCA in New York. There were delays in this deal because of allegations of shadiness surrounding Noble's interest in WMCA -- but these problems were resolved and the deal was closed in July 1943. In December 1944, the name of the company was changed to "American Broadcasting Company, Inc," and at the end of 1945, "Blue Network" was dropped from the on-air system cue, leaving only ABC in its place.
The terms "Red" and "Blue" were actually used on-air only rarely during the time in which NBC operated two chains -- for a brief period spanning the latter half of 1936 and the first half of 1937, and again for several months in mid-1941. The two networks did use different sets of chimes during 1929-30 (and possibly earlier) with the Red being signified by a seven-note progression and the Blue by a five-note progression. The terms did turn up in the press, however -- even though it was more common in fan publications to refer to the Red as the NBC-WEAF network and the Blue as NBC-WJZ.
Date: Sun, 29 Dec 2002 18:07:39 -0500 From: Elizabeth McLeod To: Subject: Re: More Red and Blue why is it that most of the system outcues heard are 'generic' as "This is the National Broadcasting Company" with no reference to the Red Network or the Blue Network?
Most of the time, Red and Blue seem to have been largely internal/industry designations -- you would find references to Red and Blue in internal company documents or the trade press, but most of the time civilian publications referred simply to the "NBC-WEAF" or "NBC-WJZ" network. NBC doesn't seem to have been especially interested in drawing attention to its bifurcated structure for most of the time it ran two networks -- and indeed, until 1937-38 there *were* no administrative distinctions between the two networks. There was only one Program Department, only one Sales Department, and so on down the line. This being so, "This is the National Broadcasting Company" was a perfectly acceptable system cue for both chains.
There were two exceptions to this -- the only two periods in NBC's history where Red and Blue were routinely used as on-air designations: 1936-37 and 1941. The 1936-37 period was probably the result of the early rumblings of a Federal investigation of NBC's activities -- and was done to create an apparent distinction between the two networks where no real distinction existed. The 1941 use of Red and Blue was concurrent with the release of the FCC's Report on Chain Broadcasting, and was probably a way of conditioning the public for the upcoming separation of Red from Blue.
I also believe that there may have been an early effort to indicate Red or Blue by means of distinctive chime sequences. The three-tone G-E-C chime was not standardized until 1931 at the earliest -- indeed, the earliest known recordings of the three note chime date to March 1932. But there are surviving recordings from 1929, 1930, and 1931 in which a seven-note chime pattern is used on the Red network, and two different five-note chime patterns used on Blue. (Audio clips of these chimes can be heard on Bill Harris's website.) While no documentation has emerged to support the hypothesis that these chimes were used consistently to designate Red or Blue, it is certainly suggested by circumstantial evidence.
It's also important to keep in mind that there were many NBC sustaining programs that were neither Red nor Blue -- these were programs made available to Supplemental stations not being used by either network at a particular time, and were usually musical fillers, band remotes, and so forth.
Date: Mon, 23 Dec 2002 19:29:31 -0500 From: Elizabeth McLeod To: Subject: Re: Red and Blue I have read in the past, from quite a few sources, that also indicate that NBCs blue network was geared to the more "upscale" and carried a lot more sustaining prestige programming . However, some of the programs that aired on NBCs Blue would seem to counter this statement . How much actual truth is there in the statement ? If true, was it a deliberate programming attempt or did the Blue just end up that way while part of NBC ?
It depends on the period under consideration. Prior to about 1937, there was no perceptible difference in programming between Red and Blue, nor was there any deliberate effort to direct "popular" programs to Red and "prestige" programming to Blue -- indeed, "Amos 'n' Andy," the most popular program of the first half of the decade, was a Blue feature from 8/19/29 to 7/12/35. Conversely, "prestige" programming like the Atwater Kent Hour, the Voice of Firestone, and Cities Service Concerts, were always Red features.
In all cases, these network choices were the result of advertiser decisions, not any integrated "network programming philosophy." Network decisions were made by advertisers on the basis of the most powerful stations for the best per-station per-hour price for the specific time period desired, and there was very little difference in terms of rates or station power between Basic Red and Basic Blue.
Around 1937, however, this began to change. At this point, as a direct result of mounting sentiment among federal regulators that the operation of two networks by a single corporation was not in the public interest, NBC began to make a conscious effort to differentiate Red and Blue, and for the first time a separate Blue Network sales office was established in order to create the fiction that the two networks genuinely competed for advertising clients. This issue was investigated by the FCC during its 1938 hearings, and the fiction of "competition" thoroughly exposed.
It was also at this time that NBC began to emphasize sustaining "Educational" features on the Blue. These were the so-called "upscale" programs that created the impression that Blue was a more highbrow alternative to the mass-audience Red network. This was a rather overt attempt at convincing investigators that the Blue served a higher purpose than simply ensuring that NBC had a greater number of available affiliates than its competitors. It's also likely that NBC feared federal intervention forcing it to divest itself of one of the two networks, and was taking care to ensure that its big money contracts were lined up on one side of the scale before this happened. (As, in fact, it did with the issuance of the FCC's "Report on Chain Broadcasting" in 1941.)
Date: Sat, 28 DEC 2002 09:43:03 -0500 From: Elizabeth McLeod To: Subject: Re: Red, Blue, and Supplemental Throughout most of the 1930's, it seemed that NBC had separate distinct facilities for distribution of both the "Red" and "Blue" networks only in the northeast and urbanized midwest (including Omaha and Kansas City).
Exactly -- these facilities were "Basic Red" and "Basic Blue." A sponsor planning an NBC program buy was required to purchase time on one of these two units as a minimum. As of 1933, Basic Red was made up of 20 stations, and Basic Blue was also 20 -- although the Blue count is slightly deceptive, since it counts WBZ and WBZA as separate outlets, when in fact they broadcast in synchronization covering the same market, and counts the four Chicago outlets that carried Blue program as separate outlets, even though they usually did not operate simultaneously.
Not all markets in the Basic territory were covered by both Red and Blue. There was no Blue service to Northern New England, for example -- listeners thruout the region had to rely on WBZ/WBZA for Blue programs. Likewise there were no Blue outlets in Philadelphia, Schenectady, Buffalo, or Hartford -- all markets which were covered by Basic Red.
But the rest of the country, such as the southeast, south-central states, rural upper Midwest (rural Minnesota, rural Nebraska, the Dakotas), the mountain states, etc., it seemed that there were single-line "legs" of the network... i.e., there was only one NBC affiliate in all markets, all fed along a single telco line in that region of the US, where all of those stations would be carrying the same NBC program, whether "Red" or "Blue". And it was up to NBC and the sponsor as to whether that part of the country would be "Red" or would be "Blue" at whatever specific day/time.
These were the "Supplemental" stations -- and indeed, there was nothing in their affiliation agreements which would designate them as Red or Blue. Supplemental stations could not be taken on an a la carte basis -- they had to be purchased in groups: Canadian, Southeastern, South-Central, Southwestern, Northwestern, or Mountain. Coast-to-Coast coverage for a program required purchase of the Basic Pacific Network -- which could only be used if the Mountain group was also part of the network, since the link was made via Salt Lake City. Additional western coverage was available via the Pacific Supplemental group -- and NBC also offered "Special Hawaiian Service" via a shortwave link to KGU in Honolulu.
An hour of time on the full Red Network -- Basic plus all available Supplemental groups -- during the 1932-33 season would cost a sponsor $12,880. The full Blue Network, with three fewer outlets, offered an hourly rate of $12,270.
Early Recordings
The Silver Tour-The Silver Tour is an accredited 501(c)(3) non-profit working to educate seniors on the benefits of medical marijuana
On November 25, 1948 (Thanksgiving Day) KEX-FM began operation on 92.3mc. (trivia: KEX started on Christmas Day 1926). KEX-FM was owned by Westinghouse Radio Stations, Inc. (Walter C. Evans, President). Studios were located at Radio Center (1230 S.W. Main St.) in Portland. KEX-FM's transmitter site was located on Healy Heights (4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive). A Westinghouse unit, employing a four-bay pylon antenna, mounted on a 146 foot self-supporting steel tower. Antenna height: 955 feet above average terrain, with the power of 56.4KW. KEX-FM was Portland's 6th FM station, duplicating it's sister and the ABC Radio schedule (3PM to 9PM daily). One of the first programs heard on this day, episode 1 of The Cinnamon Bear, at 4:45PM. Charles S. Young was General Manager of KEX & KEX-FM.
In 1950 John B. Conley became G.M. In 1952 Joseph E. Baudino became Executive Vice President of Westinghouse Radio. In 1953 the licensee name changed to Westinghouse Broadcasting Co. (Chris J. Whitting, President). In 1955 KEX-FM reduced power to 56KW, also Donald H. McGannon became President. In 1956 Herbert L. Bachman became General Manager. On December 17, 1956 KEX-FM was quietly taken off the air.
On August 5, 1957 KEX-FM was reactivated. A new policy: All Westinghouse FM's would adopt classical formats. KEX-FM was now operating 5PM to Midnight, Monday through Friday. Slogan: You're in tune with Westinghouse, KEX-FM in Portland. On May 1, 1960 KEX-FM & sister moved to new studios at 2130 S.W. 5th Ave. (cost approximately $200.000).
On October 25, 1961 Westinghouse announced plans to donate KEX-FM to the state of Oregon. Westinghouse had previously donated other FM's to educational interests in some of it's markets. KEX-FM's G.M. Herbert L. Bachman originated the idea here. Portland did not have an outlet for Oregon Educational Broadcasting Radio. In fact the City had just seen it's sister television service begin 8 months earlier. (KOAP Channel 10).
On March 15, 1962 the transfer "by deed as gift" to licensee: State of Oregon, Acting by And Through The State Board of Higher Education, was approved. The gift included broadcasting equipment, the transmitter site and KEX-FM's classical music library. A total value of $100,000. Work then began on the new broadcasting studio in the transmitter building at 4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive. On April 8, 1962 KEX-FM left the air and the 92.3 frequency was clear until April 30, 1962 when KOAP-FM began operation.
On April 30, 1962 KOAP-FM began operation at 3:30PM. Dedication ceremonies included speeches by Oregon Governor, Mark Hatfield; KEX President, Herbert Buchman; State System Chanceller, Roy E. Lieuallen & Extension Division, Dean J. Sherburne. It was announced Classical music would be the base of the operation. KOAP-FM had been made possible by a generous gift from Westinghouse Broadcasting Co., Inc., owners of KEX on 10-25-61. Transfer of the license to: The State of Oregon, acting by and through the State Board of Higher Education, was accepted on 3-15-62. Approved by the FCC on 4-30-62. The former KEX-FM had left the air on 4-8-62. For more on the donation and previous history see "Westinghouse Establishes KEX-FM".
KOAP-FM broadcast on 92.3mc. with the power of 57KW. KOAP-FM's transmitter site was located on Healy Heights (4504 S.W. Carl Place. Street connects with west side of Council Crest Drive) in Portland OR. A Westinghouse Model FM10 transmitter was utilized with a four-bay pylon antenna, mounted on a 146 foot self-supporting steel tower. The antenna was 955 feet above average terrain. The KOAP-FM transmitter site was adjacent to sister KOAP-TV channel 10 studio & transmitter site at 4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive. (former KGW-FM & KQFM transmitter site. KOAP-TV began operation 2-6-61). KOAP-FM re-broadcast via over the air pick up, AM sister KOAC 550kc. Corvallis OR from studios at 303 Covell Hall, on the campus of Oregon State University. The KOAP FM-TV Administration offices were located in the General Extension Division, Oregon State System of Higher Education Building (1633 S.W. Park Ave.) in Portland OR.
KOAP-FM call letter meaning from TV sister: Oregon Air Portland. KOAP-FM slogan: This is OEBN, Oregon Educational Broadcasting Network. Dr. Luke F. Lamb was KOAP-FM Director of Educational Media; James M. Morris, Director of Educational Radio & TV Dept.(OEBN); William F. McGrath, Educational Services Manager(OEBN); Paul La Riviere, KOAP-FM Program Manager (formerly KEX-FM P.D.); Rollie Smith, Program Manager(OEBN); Philip B. Kalar, Director of Music(OEBN)(formerly with WGN, WMAQ & WLS P.D. & M.D. 1930-42); Robert C. Hinz, News Director(OEBN); Shirley J. Howard, Director of Women's Programming(OEBN); "Bob" Robert M. Roberts, Instructor(OEBN); "Tony" Anton H. Schmidt, KOAP FM-TV Chief Engineer. KOAP-FM operated 3:30PM to 10:30PM Monday through Thursday & 3:00PM to 11:00PM Fridays.
By May 1963 KOAP-FM had changed it's slogan slightly to: Oregon Educational Radio Network. Also by 1963 KOAP-FM had built a control room in the transmitter building, which included an RCA console, 2 turntables & 2 Ampex 350 audio tape machines, plus a microphone. KOAP-FM originated programming 6:00PM to sign off. On September 26, 1963 KOAP-FM moved to 91.5mc. & increased antenna height to 960 feet. During the frequency move, the station was off the air for ten days. By October 1963 Paul La Riviere was KOAP-FM General Manager. By October 1964 William F. McGrath was OERN General Manager; Lester G. Mock, KOAP-FM General Manager; Kenneth L. Warren, OERN Program Manager & Bob M. Roberts, KOAP-FM Assistant Professor of Radio & Television (plus) Music Director.
By February 1965 KOAP-FM had changed it's slogan slightly again, to: OEB Radio, Oregon Educational Broadcasting. OEB was administered by the Oregon State System of Higher Education's Division of Continuing Education. Also by 1965 KOAP-FM had initiated a 960MHz microwave link with KOAC for better sound quality. KOAP-FM hours of operation were now 3:00PM to 10:00PM Monday through Friday (KOAC 10AM to 10PM Mon. thru Sat.). The KOAP FM-TV Administration offices at 1633 S.W. Park Ave. was now called The DCE Building (Division of Continuing Education). By April 1965 the OEB Radio program schedule percentage breakdown was: 41.2% Performing Arts, 20% Other (includes news), 12.5% General Educational, 11% Entertainment, 8.3% Public, 7% Instructional.
In January 1966 OEB Radio & KOAP-FM became NER member stations. (National Educational Radio, debuted in 1963 as a tape distributed network). On March 21, 1966 KOAP-FM hours of operation began mirroring KOAC 9:30AM to 10:00PM Monday through Friday. (KOAC was on Saturdays only). On May 24, 1966 KOAP FM-TV moved Administration & TV Production studios to The Northwestern, Inc. Building. (2828 S.W. Front Ave.). OEB leased opproximately 11,000 square feet on 3 floors. Northwestern Motion Picture & Recording continued to occupy the rest of the building. By September 1966 William F. McGrath was KOAP-FM Program Director. On September 28, 1966 KOAP-TV dedicated it's new studios. By October 1966 Robert C. Hinz was OEB General Manager. By October 1967 Bob Hinz was OEB G.M. & P.D. with John McDonald, OEB News Director.
On November 5, 1967 KOAP-FM added Sundays to it's schedule 3:55PM to 11:00PM. On May 19, 1968 Sundays were dropped when a grant was used up. On August 3, 1968 Philip B. Kalar, OEB Director of Music and KOAC M.D. since 1950, passed away. By October 1968 Lester G. Mock was Assistant Director of Educational Media & William F. McGrath KOAP-FM General Manager. In May 1969 Frank Woodman was named OEB Music Director (formerly on KEX-FM, KPAM/KPFM, KPOJ AM-FM & KSLM). On July 21,1969 KOAP-FM added an extra hour nightly expanding to 11:00PM. Also simulcasting reduced 5:00PM to 9:45PM. On September 29, 1969 simulcasting expanded 11:00AM to 7:30PM. By October 1969 Lester G. Mock was Head of OEB; Robert C. Hinz, OEB General Manager & Robert C. Mundt, OEB Program Director.
On May 3, 1971 the NER Network merged with NPR (National Public Radio, debuted on 4-19-71). On this date KOAP-FM became an NPR member station. Also on this date NPR debuted a new program "All Things Considered". On June 5, 1971 OEB announced the KOAP-FM studio & transmitter site would move to the adjacent KOAP-TV tower site (4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive) comprising the former KOAP-TV studio building. Work had already begun on the new radio studio in the old TV building. (production control room & tape editing studio). Stereo equipment would be installed with a new antenna side-mounted on the KOAP-TV tower. Work on the stereo conversion would begin in the Fall 1971, moving in early 1972. On July 4, 1971 KOAP-FM expanded hours of operation Sunday through Friday 11:00AM to 11:00PM. On October 3, 1971 KOAP-FM expanded to 7 days a week. 9:00AM to 10:00PM Monday through Friday, 9:30AM to 10:00PM Saturdays & 11:00AM to 11:00PM Sundays.
On March 13, 1972 KOAP-FM inaugurated "FM stereo service and the birth of a new network service concept. Oregon Educational & Public Broadcasting Service." Slogans included the previous with: OEPBS Radio. Stereo was on just a handful of programs in the beginning, from the new studios at 4545 S.W. Council Crest Drive. A new Gates FM20H transmitter had been installed. Power had increased to 61KW with antenna height lowered to 910 feet. By June 1972 Donald R. Larson was Director of OEPBS & Robert Bell, KOAP-FM Program Director. On August 28, 1972 OEPBS sold the old KOAP-FM studio & transmitter site at 4504 S.W. Carl Place to Port Services Co. (Al H. Herman, owner) for $53,000. On October 2, 1972 KOAP-FM expanded hours of operation 8:00AM to 10:35PM Monday through Friday & 8:00AM to 10:00PM Saturday & Sundays.
In March 1973 KOAP-FM began it's SCA sub-carrier channel service for "Golden Hours". Monday through Friday 10:00AM to 5:00PM with Graham Archer as Director. By May 1973 Robert C. Hinz was OEPBS General Manager; Thomas M. Doggett, OEPBS Broadcast Manager & William F. McGrath KOAP-FM Station Operations Manager. On June 1, 1973 KOAP-FM hours were reduced 8:00AM to 10:00PM daily. In August 1973 Donald S. Bryant became Director of OEPBS. On October 7, 1973 KOAP-FM expanded Sunday hours 7:00AM to 11:00PM. On May 4, 1974 KOAP-FM weekend hours expanded 7:00AM to 12:30AM Saturdays & 6:30AM to 12:05AM Sundays. In June 1974 "Hep" Harold A. Hepler became KOAP-FM Chief Engineer. By November 1974 Robert C. Hinz was Director of Operations, OEPBS & Thomas M. Doggett, Director of Programming & Production, OEPBS.
On February 3, 1975 KOAP-FM expanded SCA hours with the addition of "Radio Reading Service" talking books for blind & handicapped, Monday through Friday 8:00AM to 10:00AM (Golden Hours: 10AM to 5PM). On April 1, 1975 KOAP-FM expanded SCA hours 8:00AM to 10:00PM with more Golden Hours. By December 1975 Donald S. Bryant was Executive Director of OEPBS & Bonnie Solow, News Coordinator, OEPBS. On February 19, 1976 OEPBS purchased KVDO (TV) channel 3 Salem OR for $203,000. On February 26, 1976 KVDO began separate OEPBS programming. On February 28, 1976 a disgruntled viewer protesting KVDO's sale to OEPBS cut guy wires, toppling the channel 3 TV tower. By June 1976 KOAP-FM had expanded hours of operation 5:58AM to 12:10AM daily with SCA hours expanded to Midnight. On August 31, 1976 KTVR La Grande OR was donated to OEPBS from KTVB, Inc. of Boise ID. Channel 13 was then shut down. On September 20, 1976 KVDO signed back on the air with a new tower.
On November 6, 1976 KOAP-FM expanded SCA hours to weekends, 8:00AM to Midnight Saturday & Sundays. By December 1976 Mary Kay Mitchell was News Coordinator, OEPBS. On February 1, 1977 KTVR signed back on the air re-broadcasting portions of KWSU-TV Pullman & KSPS Spokane WA, mirroring OEPBS-TV programming as much as possible (4PM to 11PM) until the OEPBS-TV translator network was completed, delivering the signal. In early May 1977 KYTE donated it's 3,000 Classical music library to OEPBS after Gaylord Broadcasting purchased KOIN AM-FM. On May 9, 1977 OEPBS began running the old "Koin Concert Hall" program 8 to Midnight Monday through Friday.
On September 1, 1977 OEPBS shut down KTVR because of increasing technical problems at the Mount Fanny transmitter site. On January 1, 1978 KTVR signed back on the air carrying OEPBS programming for the first time. On March 1, 1978 KOAP-FM cut SCC Golden Hours programming 8:00AM to Midnight Monday through Friday & 6:00PM to 10:00PM Saturdays. In April 1978 OEPBS debuted the 34 piece "KOAP Studio Orchestra". Dennis Kalfas, Director. Oregon's only studio orchestra. By May 1978 Graham Archer was Executive Director of Golden Hours. On June 1, 1978 KOAP-TV began receiving programming via the Westar 1 satellite. On June 30, 1978 PBS landlines were discontinued. In September 1978 KOAP-FM began receiving NPR programming via the Westar 1 satellite. In Fall 1979 KOAP-FM moved studios in with TV sister at The Northwestern, Inc. Building (2828 S.W. Front Ave.). 50% of OEPBS Radio programming now originated from KOAP-FM.
In November 1979 The State Board of Higher Education created a new division for it's broadcast stations, calling it The Oregon Commission On Public Broadcasting. Travis Cross, Chairmen & Patricia Joy, Assistant Vice-Chairmen (formerly with KGW-TV). On May 3, 1980 "A Prairie Home Companion" debuted through it's newly formed distributer APR (American Public Radio) & on KOAP-FM. In OEPBS's "The Hungry Eye" member guide, the first program discription: "A variety show which features host Garrison Keiller and presents a range of musical styles." In November 1980 Dean E. Anderson became Acting Executive Director of OEPBS. In January 1981 Gerard L. Appy became Executive Director of OEPBS. In June 1981 OEPBS made a proposal to the Oregon Commission On Broadcasting to move KVDO Salem to Bend OR.
In October 1981 a new slogan: This is OPB, Oregon Public Broadcasting. OPB Radio. By December 1981 Robert C. Hinz was OPB Director of Radio Programming & Operations. In January 1982 Patricia Joy became Special Assistant to The Executive Director of OPB. Also in 1982 licensee named changed to State of Oregon, acting by and through The Oregon Commission On Public Broadcasting. On August 6, 1983 KVDO Salem signed off the air, ending 13 years of service to the Willamette Valley. Channel 3 would move to Bend OR. Also in August 1983 Patricia Joy became OPB Director of Radio Programming. By December 1983 Virginia Breen was OPB Operations Coordinator. In mid December 1983 KOAP-TV moved it's antenna to the KPDX tower site on Skyline. (211 N.W. Miller Rd.). On December 22, 1983 at 9AM, KOAB channel 3 Bend signed on the air.
In March 1984 KOAP-FM moved to the KPDX TV tower. KOAP-FM began using a new Harris FM-25K as it's main transmitter and moved the Gates FM20H as backup. A Harris (ERI) six-bay antenna was mounted at 1,560 feet above average terrain. (476 meters). Power increased to 70KW horizontal & 21KW vertical. Also in 1984 licensee named changed to State of Oregon, Oregon Commission On Public Broadcasting. By December 1984 Mike Tondreau was KOAP-FM Chief Engineer & KOAP-FM format was listed as Fine Arts. By October 1985 Elaine Piper was Manager of Golden Hours. On January 23, 1986 KOAB-FM 91.3kHz. Bend OR began operation, carrying OPB Radio programming. By 1986 most OPB Radio programming originated at KOAP-FM. In July 1986 KRBM 90.9kHz. located at Blue Mountain Community College in Pendleton OR, began carrying some OPB Radio programming.
In August 1986 Maynard E. Orme became Executive Director of OPB. Also in 1986 Tom Goldman became OPB Radio News Director. In April 1987 K232CK 94.3kHz. Hood River OR became OPB Radio's first FM translator station. In May 1987 Michael Foley became Manager of Golden Hours. In June 1987 OPB broke ground on the new "OPB Broadcast Center" in the John's Landing area of Portland. Mike Tondreau was now KOAP-FM Director of Engineering. Also in June 1987 OPB Radio moved the KRBM transmitter site from the college to Warren Hill and increased power from 1KW to 25KW. OPB Radio programming also increased on KRBM. On September 1, 1987 KOAP-FM expanded hours of operation 5:00AM to 12:10AM daily. In November 1987 OPB Radio added two new FM translator stations. K220BG 91.9kHz. Lakeview OR & K216BI 91.1kHz. Valley Falls, Plush OR. On December 1, 1987 KOAP-FM's Golden Hours service expanded 5:00AM to 12:10AM daily. Also in December 1987 K210AV 89.9kHz. La Grande OR began operation.
In March 1988 Virginia Breen became Acting Director of Radio Programming for OPB, when Director, Patricia Joy became gravally ill. Also in March 1988 Carolyn Duncan became OPB Radio News Director. News programming was now carried 40 hours weekly. KOAP-FM format was discribed as Classical, New Age & Jazz. In late June 1988 KOAP FM-TV moved studios to the new "OPB Broadcast Center". (7140 S.W. Macadam Ave.). In August 1988 Patricia Joy passed away from a viral brain disease. In October 1988 Virginia Breen became Director of Radio Programming for OPB & Robert McBride became OPB Music Director. In December 1988 K218BA 91.5kHz. John Day OR; K214AQ 90.7kHz. Mount Vernon OR & K211BF 90.1kHz. Burns, Silvies OR began operation.
On February 15, 1989 KOAP FM-TV & OPB announced "A change is in the air at Oregon Public Broadcasting. We've just made a little change that makes big sense: our Portland TV & Radio call letters are now KOPB." Also in February 1989 K212AQ 90.3kHz (Wagontire) Riley, Alkali Lake OR began operation. In June 1989 Brian Thomas became OPB Radio News Director. In July 1989 KOPB-FM began 5 minute NPR Newscasts from 10:01AM to 3:01PM weekdays. Also in July 1989 K218AZ 91.5kHz. The Dalles OR & K218BC 91.5kHz. Baker City OR began operation. In October 1989 K219BG 91.7kHz. Silver Lake OR began operation. In December 1989 Ted Bryant became OPB News Director (formerly KOIN AM-FM-TV N.D.). By February 1990 KOPB-FM slogan: OPB, it's where you belong.
In September 1990 Maynard E. Orme became OPB President & C.E.O. & Virginia Breen was named OPB Vice-President of Radio. Also in September 1990 K217BO 91.3kHz. Halfway OR & K220DA 91.9kHz. Richland OR began operation. On September 27, 1990 KEPB channel 28 Eugene OR began operation carrying OPB programming. In March 1991 K276BU 103.1kHz Corvallis OR began carrying OPB Radio after KIQY 103.7kHz. Lebanon donated the translator station. On August 1, 1991 KOAC began news & information programming 8:00PM to 11:00PM while KOPB-FM continued it Classical music. On April 1, 1993 KOAC news & information programming expanded 11:00AM to 11:00PM.
In June 1993 a new private non-profit corportion was formed for OPB stations. On September 20, 1993 OPB station licenses were transfered to Oregon Public Broadcasting (Maynard E. Orme, C.E.O.). By December 1993 James H. Lewis was OPB Senior Vice-President. In March 1994 K298AC 107.5kHz. Ontario OR began operation. On May 1, 1994 KOPB-FM expanded hours of operation 4:00AM to Midnight weekly. On July 1, 1994 APR Radio Network became PRI, Public Radio International. Also on this date KOPB-FM Golden Hours expanded 4:00AM to Midnight weekdays & 4:00AM to 11:00PM weekends. Some of these hours were also KOPB-FM programming. In August 1994 K289AC 105.7kHz. (Manzanita OR) Nedonna Beach OR began operation. In June 1995 Jerry DeLaunay became Golden Hours Manager. In October 1996 K231AD 94.1kHz. (Pacific City OR) Happy Hollow OR & K218BX 91.5kHz (Salishan OR) Gleneden Beach OR began operation. By December 1996 Debbi Hinton was OPB Senior Radio Vice-President & Morgan Holm, OPB Radio News Director.
On March 5, 1997 OPB's experimental high-definition television station transmitted a random-bit data stream using the FCC's new DTV standard. OPB was the first in Oregon to achieve this. (experimental DTV license issued 9-96). On September 1, 1997 KOPB-FM dropped Classical music except on weekends. KOPB-FM began duplicating KOAC's news & information format. On September 15, 1997 OPB's experimental DTV station was assigned the calls KAXC for UHF channel 35. On October 11, 1997 at 4:37PM KAXC became the first TV station in Oregon and one of the first on the west coast to transmit a high-definition television picture. In September 1998 KOPB-FM's Golden Hours was also offered on SAP (second audio program) on stereo TV's. In January 1999 Golden Hours programming ended over KOPB-FM's SCC.
In May 1999 groundbreaking for the new "Skyline Tower LLC" took place. A joint venture of OPB & KGW. The tower would be 926 feet. In October 2000 KOAP 88.7kHz. Lakeview OR began operation & K220BG went dark. In June & July 2001 KOPB FM-TV moved to the new Skyline Tower. (299 N.W. Skyline Blvd.). KOPB-FM moved it's Harris FM-25K first, with the back up Gates FM20H operating during the move. The Gates would then move and become the back up at the Skyline Tower. The new multi station FM panel "Shively" antenna is at 720 feet, composed of eight-bays, with 3 panels in each bay, attached around the faces of the tower. KOPB-FM increased power to 73KW. On December 7, 2001 KOPB-DT channel 27 Portland began DTV operation. On October 29, 2002 KOAC-DT channel 39 Corvallis began DTV operation. By February 2003 Lynn Clendenin was OPB Radio Program Director. In August 2003 KTVR-FM 90.3kHz. La Grande OR began operation & K210AV went dark. KOPB-FM slogan: This is OPB.
On April 12, 1926 KOIN began operation at 3PM. Call meaning: Know Oregon's Independent Newspaper. (The Portland News motto minus "Know"). Dolph Thomas, Studio Director & Manager, also "The Voice of KOIN". Slogan: The Portland News-Halowat Broadcasting Station. (Halowat: a play on owners Hallock & Watson last names). KOIN broadcast: 3PM to 4PM & 8PM to 10PM Monday through Friday, 7:50PM to 9PM Sunday. By June 1926 KOIN began using it's Call meaning as it's slogan. On June 21, 1926 KOIN moved studios to the basement of The Heathman Hotel (355 Salmon St., now: 731 S.W. Salmon St.). Also by this time "The KOIN Orchestra" had begun, Conducted by Mischa Pelz. In August 1926 licensee name changed to KOIN, Inc.
Also in August 1926 The Radio Division changed KOIN's community of license to Sylvan OR, it's transmitter location. On October 17, 1926 KOIN began two tower operation. One tower was 100 feet, the other, 110 feet with an additional 20 foot mast on top of each. The upper mast was guyed with wires to the main structure by a self supporting system. Justification for one taller tower was because Mt. Calvary Hill was not flat at it's crest. On November 8, 1926 KOIN, Inc. became wholly owned by The Portland News (The News Publishing, Harry W. Ely, President, group owner: Scripps Newspapers). Cliffton H. Watson stayed on as KOIN's Chief Engineer. By mid 1927 KOIN's slogan: The station of the hour.
On December 17, 1927 KOIN moved studios to the mezzanine floor of The New Heathman Hotel (344 Salmon St., 1933: 712 S.W. Salmon St., 1980: 1001 S.W. Broadway). On November 4, 1928 Art Kirkham joined KOIN as an announcer. By November 1928 KOIN slogan: The Portland News Station. In 1929 Red Dunning joined The KOIN Orchestra as Assistant Director. By July 1929 KOIN broadcast: 9AM to 2PM & 3PM to 5PM Monday through Saturday, 6PM to Midnight Monday, Wednesday, Friday & Saturday, 6PM to 11PM Tuesday & Thursday, Noon to 1PM, 1:30PM to 2:30PM & 6PM to 10PM Sunday. On September 1, 1929 KOIN became a charter member affiliate of "The Don Lee-Columbia Network", CBS's new western chain. (KEX lost CBS when KEX group owner ABC Western Network, carrier of CBS folded).
On November 10, 1929 KOIN carried it's first program from The Don Lee Broadcasting System. (same land lines as CBS). By December 1929 C. Roy Hunt was Vice-President & General Manager of KOIN, Inc. In 1930 Joseph Sampietro took over Conducting The KOIN Orchestra. By June 1930 the FRC had moved KOIN's community of license back to Portland OR. On December 8, 1930 the popular "Koin Klock" program debuted. This could have been the first time the call slogan was used (Coin). By December 1930 Bruce Fichtl was Assistant General Manager.
On February 28, 1931 KOIN was sold to KOIN, Inc.(The Journal Publishing Co., owner of The Oregon Journal newspaper 30%, Charles W. Myers, President, formally of The Portland News with KQP, Simeon R. Winch, Vice-President, C. Roy Hunt, Treasurer & continuing G.M.). Slogan: KOIN, The Journal. On November 20, 1932 KOIN raised daytime power to 5KW from it's new 10 acre transmitter site on the south side of Barnes Rd., referred to as Barnes Hill, corner of Jones Rd. (now S.W. Skyline Blvd.) 5516 S.W. Barnes Rd. Ground breaking for the two story transmitter building on 10-3-32. Building 35x56, transmitter room 20x30, generator room 12x22, heating room 10x12, garage 12x18, shower & locker room 12x12, night duty apartment 12x34. The entire building was metal shielded with all steel work grounded.
The transmitter building was midway between two 300 foot steel towers, 600 feet apart. The ground system for the new plant was of the "radial" type, a copper circle 400 feet in diameter. The "spokes" were the equivalent of 30 miles of 2 inch width No. 12 copper wire. They were buried to a minimum of 4 feet. This was further grounded by the sinking of copper ground rodes 8 feet long, thus obtaining a permanent ground to the depth of 12 feet. Ground system & building plans by KOIN Chief Engineer, Victor S. Carson. The facility cost $50,000. On November 3, 1933 Koin began sharing The Don Lee-Columbia Network with sister Kale. By May 1935 KOIN broadcast: 6:30AM to Midnight Monday through Saturday & 8AM to Midnight Sunday.
On December 29, 1936 The Don Lee-Columbia Network became The Columbia Pacific Network, when the Don Lee liaison with CBS ended. KOIN continued to be a Don Lee Broadcasting System affiliate until January 31, 1937. On September 9, 1937 KOIN again became the exclusive Portland CBS affiliate. On May 4, 1938 Koin reverted to a new single Ideco steel 540 foot vertical radiator at it's Barnes Hill site. $20,000. for additional acreage & grading. Another $20,000. for the tower & contruction. By 1940 Johnny L. Carpenter was Sports Director By April 1940 Les Haplin was News Editor (Director). On August 11, 1940 KOIN added an additional 540 foot Ideco tower and raised night power to 5KW directional. Louis S. Bookwalter, Chief Engineer.
On March 29, 1941 KOIN switched to 970kc. In 1942 C. Roy Hunt KOIN G.M., Treasurer & part owner died. Later in 1942 Charles W. Myers KOIN President took on G.M. dutes as well. Clyde E. Phillips became Treasurer. In 1944 Red Dunning became KOIN Orchestra Director. By May 1945 Koin was operating 24 hours Tuesday through Sunday, Midnight to 1AM & 6AM to Midnight Mondays. (swing shift war hours). On March 30, 1946 KOIN was sold to satisfy the FCC's duopoly ruling to KOIN, Inc. (group owner: Field Enterprises, Inc., Marshall Field III, President) for $1,045,000. Harry H. Buckendahl became Vice-President & General Manager for the next 22 years.
On January 22, 1952 KOIN was sold to Mount Hood Radio & Television Broadcasting Corp. (Ted R. Gamble, President, C. Howard Lane, Vice-President, Edward G. Burke, Jr., Sherrill C. Corwin & Ralph E. Stolkin) for $700,000. (price included FM sister). Koin slogan: The best in radio everyday. On June 9, 1954 Samuel I. & wife Mitzi E. Newhouse bought 50% in KOIN-AM-FM-TV for $556,000. (They also owned The Oregonian & Oregon Journal newspapers). In 1955 KOIN-AM-FM moved studios to 140 S.W. Columbia St. (KOIN-TV location since sign on 10-15-53). By October 1955 Koin's slogan was: Portland's liveliest station. By November 1955 KOIN broadcast: 6AM to Midnight weekly. By September 1957 slogan was: Koin 970.
In 1960 Ted R. Gamble KOIN President & part owner died. Later in 1960 C. Howard Lane, became President & Harry H. Buckendahl became V.P. once again as well as G.M. By this time Koin's music was described as MOR. Slogan: The best sounds in music. By September 1963 KOIN's slogan: The Pacific Northwest's showmanship station. By May 1965 Koin broadcast: 5:30AM to Midnight Monday through Saturday, 7AM to Midnight Sunday. By October 1965 Koin's slogan was: The community station for the new Portland. By October 1967 John Armstrong was News Director. In 1968 Fred McKinney was named KOIN Orchestra Director after Red Dunning retired. In January 1969 Andrew E. Jacobs became G.M. On October 16, 1970 KOIN broadcast the opening game for the new Portland Trail Blazers. (Bill Schonely did play by play). By January 1972 Koin's format was listed as "popular jazz music".
On August 25, 1972 the program "Koin Klock" left the air after 41 years. A victim of demographics. On the last program KOIN mainstays: Art Kirkham, Johnny Carpenter & Red Dunning with Clint Gruber, Ivan Jones, Blain Hanks & Bob Henderson. A day later another Koin classic ceased. The KOIN Orchestra, the only surviving daily live radio studio orchestra west of the Mississippi ended after 46 years. The KOIN Orchestra consisted of Jack Lenard, Kash Duncan, Bob Douglas, Harry Gillgam & Fred McKinney, Director. The KOIN format was then changed to popular contemporary. Slogans: Koin's flipped. Radio 97. In April 1973 Richard J. Butterfield became G.M. By September 1973 Ted Bryant was News Director. In 1976 KOIN slogan: 97 Koin.
On May 1, 1977 KOIN was sold to Gaylord Broadcasting Co. (Edward L. Gaylord, President, Lee Allen Smith, Vice-President) for $1 1/2 Million. (price included FM sister). Tom S. Reddell, G.M., Bob Beran, News Director. On May 2, 1977 Portland radio's longest network affiliation ended after 48 years. KOIN began the transfer of CBS programs to KYXI, becoming independent by 5-12-77. On May 12, 1977 KOIN became KYTE.
Affiliate List - 1940 BASIC NETWORK STATIONS Boston, Mass. WAAB Chicago, Ill. WGN Cincinatti, Oh. WKRC Cleveland, Oh. WHK Detroit-Windsor CKLW Newark, N.J. WOR California Don Lee Complete Network (Southern and Northern California) SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DON LEE NETWORK Bakersfield KPMC El Centro KXO Los Angeles KHJ San Bernardino KFXM San Diego KGB San Luis Obispo KVEC Santa Ana KVOE Santa Barbara KDB NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DON LEE NETWORK Chico KHSL Eureka KIEM Merced KYOS Monterey KDON Redding KVCV San Francisco KFRC San Jose KQW Visalia KTKC PACIFIC NORTHWEST DON LEE NETWORK Eugene, Ore. KORE Marshfield, Ore. KOOS Portland, Ore. KALE Roseburg, Ore. KRNR Salem, Ore. KSLM Aberdeen, Wash. KXRO Bellingham, Wash. KVOS Chehalis, Wash. KELA Everett, Wash. KRKO Longview, Wash. KWLK Olympia, Wash. KGY Seattle, Wash. KOL Tacoma, Wash. KMO Wenatchee, Wash. KPQ Yakima, Wash. KIT BASIC SUPPLEMENTARY STATIONS (available individually with basics) Albany, N.Y. WABY Ashland-Huntington, Ga. WCMI Baltimore, Mary. WBAL Binghamton, Ga. WNBF Buffalo, N.Y. WGR-WKBW Cedar Rapids, Oh. WMT Charlotte, N.C. WSOC Columbus, Oh. WHKC Denver, Col. KFEL Des Moines, Iowa KSO Duluth WEBC Greeley KFKA Indianapolis, Ind. WIRE Kansas City, Mo. WHB Lexington, Kent. WLAP Lincoln, Neb. KFOR Louisville, Kent. WGRC Minneapolis - St. Paul, Minn. WDGY Nashville, Tenn. WSIX Newport News - Norfolk WGH Omaha, Neb. KOIL Philadelphia, Penn. WFIL Pittsburgh, Penn. WCAE Raleigh, N. C. WRAL Richmond, Va. WRVA Rock Island WHBF St. Louis, Miss. KWK Shenandoah, Tex. KMA Washington, D.C. WOL West Point, Ga. WDAK Wilkes-Barre, Penn. WBAX Winston-Salem, N.C. WAIR NORTHEAST (Colonial) STATIONS Augusta WRDO Bangor WLBZ Bridgeport - New Haven WICC Fall River WSAR Greenfield WHAI Hartford WTHT Laconia WLNH Lewiston - Auburn WCOU Lowell - Lawrence WLLH Manchester WFEA New Bedford WNBH New London WNLC Pittsfield WBRK Providence WEAN Rutland WSYB Springfield WSPR Waterbury WATR SOUTHWEST GROUP Coffeyvill KGGF Oklahoma Network Texas State Network OKLAHOMA NETWORK Ada KADA Enid KCRC Muskogee KBIX Oklahoma City KTOK Shawnee KGFF Tulsa KOME TEXAS STATE NETWORK Abilene KRBC Amarillo KFDA Austin KNOW Beaumont KFDM Big Spring KBST Corpus Christi KRIS Corsicana KAND Dallas WRR Fort Worth KFJZ Galveston KLUF Houston KXYZ Sherman KRRV Temple KTEM Texarcana KCMC Tyler KGKB Vernon KVWC Waco WACO Weslaco KRGV Wichita Falls KWFT HAWAIIAN STATIONS Honolulu - Hilo KGMB-KHBC BASIC NETWORK STATIONS Boston, Mass. WAAB Chicago, Ill. WGN Cincinatti, Oh. WKRC Cleveland, Oh. WCLE Detroit-Windsor CKLW Newark, N.J. WOR California Don Lee Complete Network (Nos. 1 & 2) DON LEE NETWORK No. 1 SOUTH CALIFORNIA Bakersfield KPMC El Centro KXO Los Angeles KHJ San Bernardino KFXM San Diego KGB San Luis Obispo KVEC Santa Ana KVOE Santa Barbara KDB DON LEE NETWORK No. 2 NORTH CALIFORNIA Chico KHSL Eureka KIEM Marysville KMYC Merced KYOS Monterey KDON Redding KVCV San Francisco KFRC Visalia KTKC DON LEE NETWORK No. 3 PACIFIC NORTHWEST Eugene, Ore. KORE Klamath Falls, Ore. KFJI Marshfield, Ore. KOOS Portland, Ore. KALE Roseburg, Ore. KRNR Aberdeen, Wash. KXRO Bellingham, Wash. KVOS Centralia-Chehalis, Wash. KELA Everett, Wash. KRKO Longview, Wash. KWLK Olympia, Wash. KGY Seattle, Wash. KOL Tacoma, Wash. KMO Wenatchee, Wash. KPQ Yakima, Wash. KIT DON LEE NETWORK No. 4 OKLAHOMA NETWORK Ada KADA Enid KCRC Muskogee KBIX Oklahoma City KTOK Shawnee KGFF Tulsa KOME BASIC SUPPLEMENTARY STATIONS (available individually with basics) Akron, Oh. WJW Albany, N.Y. WABY Ashland-Huntington, Ga. WCMI Atlanta, Ga. WATL Baltimore, Mary. WBAL Binghamton, Ga. WNBF Buffalo, N.Y. WGR-WKBW Canton, Oh. WHBC Cedar Rapids, Oh. WMT Charlotte, N.C. WSOC Cheyenne, Wyom. KYAN Coffeyville KGGF Columbus, Oh. WHKC Danville WBTM Decatur WMSL Denver, Col. KFEL Des Moines, Iowa KSOL Duluth - Superior WEBC Duluth - Superior* WDSM Easton WEST Elmira WENY Emporia KTSW Gadsen WJBY Grand Junction KFXJ Grand Rapids, Mich. WLAV Great Bend, Kan. KVGB Greenville, S.C. WMRC Greeley KFKA Hagerstown, Mary. WJEJ Harrisburg, Penn. WKBO Hazelton WAZL Indianapolis, Ind. WIRE Jackson, Tenn. WTJS Jefferson City, Mo. KWOS Kansas City, Mo. KITE Lancaster, Penn. WGAL Lexington, Kent. WLAP Lincoln, Neb. KFOR Louisville, Kent. WGRC Lynchburg, Va. WLVA Macon, Ga. WBML Memphis, Tenn. WMPS Minneapolis - St. Paul, Minn. WLOL Nashville, Tenn. WSIX Newport News - Norfolk WGH Ogden, Ut. KLO Omaha, Neb. KOIL Philadelphia, Penn. WFIL Pittsburgh, Penn. WCAK Raleigh, N. C. WRAL Richmond, Va. WRVA Roanoke, Va. WSLS Rochester, N.Y. WSAY Rockford, Ill. WROK Rock Island WHBF St. Louis, Miss. KWK Salina KSAL Salisbury WTSF Scranton, Penn. WABM Shenandoah, Tex. KMA Steubenville, Oh. WSTV Washington, D.C. WOL West Point, Ga. WDAK Wichita, Kan. KFBD Wilkes-Barre, Penn. WBAN Wilmington, Del. WILM Winston-Salem, N.C. WAIR No challenges to logo, sound or image copyrights are either inferred or implied.
nitial creation In 1923, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) acquired control of WJZ in Newark, New Jersey, from Westinghouse, and moved the station to New York City The same year, RCA obtained a license for station WRC in Washington, D.C., and attempted to transmit audio between WJZ and WRC via low-quality telegraph lines, in an attempt to make a network comparable to that operated by American Telephone & Telegraph. AT&T had created its own network in 1922, with WEAF in New York serving the research and development function for Western Electric's research and development of radio transmitters and antennas, as well as AT&T's long-distance and local Bell technologies for transmitting voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, via both wireless and wired methods. WEAF's regular schedule of a variety of programs, and its selling of commercial sponsorships, had been a success, and what was known at first as "chain broadcasting" became a network that linked WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island and AT&T's WCAP in Washington. Since AT&T refused access of its high-quality phone lines to competitors, RCA's New York-Washington operated with uninsulated telegraph lines which were incapable of good audio transmission quality and very susceptible to both atmospheric and man-made electrical interference. In 1926, however, the management of AT&T concluded that operating a radio network was incompatible with its operation of America's telephone and telegraph service, and sold WEAF and WCAP to RCA for approximately one million dollars. As part of the purchase, RCA also gained the rights to rent AT&T's phone lines for network transmission, and the technology for operating a quality radio network. On September 13, 1926, RCA chairman of the board Owen D. Young and president James G. Harbord announced the formation of the National Broadcasting Company, Inc. to begin broadcasting upon RCA's acquisition of WEAF on November 15. "The purpose of the National Broadcasting Company will be to provide the best programs available for broadcasting in the United States... It is hoped that arrangements may be made so that every event of national importance may be broadcast widely throughout the United States," announced M.H. Aylesworth, the first president of NBC, in the press release. Red Network and Blue Network. Although RCA was identified as the creator of the network, NBC was actually owned 50% by RCA, 30% by General Electric, and 20% by Westinghouse. The network officially was launched at 8:00 Eastern time on the evening of Monday, November 15, 1926. "The most pretentious broadcasting program ever presented, featuring among others, world famed stars never before heard on the air, will mark the Introduction of the National Broadcasting Company to the public Monday night," the press noted, with "a four hour radio performance by noted stars of opera, stage and concert hall". Carl Schlagel of the Metropolitan Opera opened the inaugural broadcast, which also featured Will Rogers and Mary Garden. The broadcast was made simultaneously on WEAF and WJZ. Some of NBC's programming was broadcast that evening on WEEI (Boston) WLIT (Philadelphia), WRC (Washington), WDAF (Kansas City), and WWJ (Detroit). noted by the different background color. NBC Blue would utilize this logo until their 1942 sale. The primary logo used for the NBC Red Network, mainly used for promotional purposes. The NBC Blue Network had an identical logo, only it was tinted blue. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided the its programming along two networks. The two NBC networks did not have distinct identities or "formats." The NBC Red Network, with WEAF as its flagship station and a stronger line-up of affiliated stations, often carried the more popular, "big budget" sponsored programs. The Blue Network and WJZ carried with a somewhat smaller line-up of often lower powered stations sold program time to advertisers at a lower cost. It often carried newer, untried programs (which, if successful, often moved "up" to the Red Network), lower cost programs and un-sponsored or "sustaining" programs (which were often news, cultural and educational programs). In many cities in addition to New York, the two NBC affiliated stations (Red and Blue) were operated as duopolies, having the same owners and sharing the same staff and facilities. At this time, most network programs were owned by the sponsors and produced by their advertising agencies. The networks did not control or "program" their own schedules as they do now (advertisers bought available time periods they wanted and chose the stations which would carry a particular program regardless of what other sponsors might broadcast in other time periods). Networks rented studio facilities to produce shows and sold air-time to sponsors. The only network produced programs were unsponsored programs used to fill unsold time periods (affiliated stations had the option to "break away" from the network to air a local program during these periods) but the network had the "option" to take back the time period if a network sponsor wanted the time period. Legend has it that the color designations originated from the color of the push-pins early engineers used to designate affiliates of WEAF (red pins) and WJZ (blue pins), or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. A similar two-part/two-color strategy appeared in the recording industry, dividing the market between classical and popular offerings. On April 5, 1927 NBC reached the West Coast with the launching of the NBC Orange Network, which rebroadcast Red Network programming to the Pacific states and had as its flagship station KGO in San Francisco. NBC Red then extended its reach into the midwest by acquiring two 50,000 watt clear-channel signals, Cleveland station WTAM on October 16, 1930 and Chicago station WMAQ (coincidenally, a CBS Radio Network charter affiliate) by 1931. On October 18, 1931, Blue Network programming was introduced along the NBC Gold Network, which broadcast from San Francisco's KPO. In 1936 the Orange Network name was dropped and affiliate stations became part of the Red Network. The Gold Network adopted the Blue Network name. NBC Red/Blue's secondary 1930s logo, commonly seen on the network's microphone flags. In a major move in 1931, RCA signed crucial leases with the new Rockefeller Center management that resulted in it becoming the lead tenant of what was to become in 1933 its corporate headquarters, the RCA Building, at 30 Rockefeller Plaza. Under the terms of the lease arrangement, this included studios for NBC and theaters for the RCA-owned RKO Pictures. The deal was arranged through the Center's founder and financier, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., with the chairman of GE, Owen D. Young, and the president of RCA, David Sarnoff. In 1939 the FCC ordered RCA to divest itself of one of the two networks. RCA fought the divestiture order, but divided NBC into two companies in 1940 in case an appeal was lost. The Blue network became the "NBC Blue Network, Inc." (now known as ABC) and the NBC Red became "NBC Red Network, Inc." Effective January 10, 1942, the two networks had their operations formally divorced, and the Blue Network was referred to on the air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network," with its official corporate name being Blue Network Company, Inc. NBC Red, on the air, became known as simply NBC on September 1, 1942. Red Network affiliates By 1939, NBC's Red and Blue Networks, and the Columbia and Mutual Broadcasting systems, offered nationwide coverage. NBC advertising rate cards of the period listed "basic" and "supplemental" affiliated stations. Advertisers were encouraged to buy time for their programs on the full "basic" line-up (plus any "supplemental" stations they wished) but this was open to negotiation. It was not unusual for Red Network advertisers to place shows on Blue Network stations in certain markets (and the other way around). Supplemental stations were generally located in smaller cities away from the network trunk lines. Such stations were usually offered to advertisers as "supplemental stations" on both the Red and Blue Network line-ups. List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1926–27 The Waldorf-Astoria Orchestra (Weeknights 6–7) Capitol Theatre (Sun 7:20–9:15) The Atwater Kent Hour (Sun 9:15–10:15) House of Myths (Mon 7:30–8:15) The Vikings (Tue 8-8:30) The Clicquot Club Eskimos (Thu 9–10) New York Symphony Orchestra (Sat 9–10) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1927–28 Capitol Theatre (Sun 7:20–9:15) The Atwater Kent Hour (Sun 9:15–10:15) The A&P Gypsies (Mon 8:30–9:30) Sanka After Dinner Music (Tue 7:30-8) Great Moments in History (Tue 8-8:30) The Ipana Troubadors (Wed 9-9:30) The Goodrich Silvertown Orchestra (Wed 9:30–10:30) The Hoover Sentinels (Thu 8:30-9) The Clicquot Club Eskimos (Thu 9–10) Cities Service Concerts (Fri 8–9) The High-Jinkers (Sat 7:30–8:30) Old Gold on Broadway (Sat 8:30–10:00) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1928–29 Capitol Theatre (Sun 7:30-9) Our Government with David Lawrence (9-9:15) The Atwater Kent Hour (Sun 9:15–10:15) National Light Opera Hour (Sun 10:15–11:15) General Motors Concerts (Mon 9:30–10:30) Soconyland Sketches (Tue 7:30-8) The Eveready Hour (Tue 9–10) The Ipana Troubadors (Wed 9-9:30) The Palmolive Hour (Wed 9:30–10:30) The Hoover Sentinels (Thu 8:30-9) The Clicquot Club Eskimos (Thu 9–10) Cities Service Concerts (Fri 8–9) The Lucky Strike Dance Hour (Sat 10–11) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1929–30 SUNDAY: Heroes of the World (7-7:30) Major Bowes Family (7:30–8:30) The Chase and Sanborn Choral Orchestra (8:30-9) Our Government with David Lawrence (9-9:15) The Atwater Kent Hour (9:15–10:15) Jean Goldkette and his Studebaker Champions Orchestra (10:15–10:45) Sunday at Seth Parker's (10:45–11:15) Russian Cathedral Choir (11:15–11:45) MONDAY: Voice of Firestone (8-8:30) The A&P Gypsies (8:30–9:30) General Motors Family Party (9:30-10) Anglo-Persians Orchestra (10-10:30) Salon Singers (10:30-11) TUESDAY: Soconyland Sketches (7:30-8) Songs of the Season (8-8:30) The Manhatters (8:30-9) The Eveready Hour (9–10) The Clicquot Club Eskimos (10-10:30) Radio Pictures Hour (10:30–11:30) WEDNESDAY: The Eternal Question (7:45-8) Mobiloil Orchestra (8-8:30) The Wonder Bakers (8:30-9) Halsey Stuart (9-9:30) The Palmolive Hour (9:30–10:30) Floyd Gibbons (10:30-11, The Coca-Cola Top-Notchers beginning March 1930) THURSDAY: The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour with Rudy Vallée (8–9) Seiberling Singers (9-9:30) Jack Frost's Melody Moments (9:30-10) RCA-Victor Orchestra (10–11) FRIDAY: Cities Service Concerts (8–9) Harbor Lights (9-9:30) Schradertown Band (9:30-10) The Planters Pickers (10-10:30) Mystery House (10:30-11) St. Regis Hotel Orchestra (11–12 A.M.) SATURDAY: The Family Goes Abroad (7-7:30) Phil Spitalny (7:30-8) Lyric Famous Challengers (8-8:30) Laundryland Lyrics (8:30-9) The General Electric Concert (9–10) The Lucky Strike Dance Hour (10–11) Rudy Vallée and his Connecticut Yankees (12 A.M.-12:30) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1930–31 Major Bowes' Theater (Sunday 7:30-8) Gypsies Hour (Mon 8:30–9:30) General Motors Family Party (Mon 9:30-10) Sherlock Holmes (Monday 10-10:30) The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour with Rudy Vallée (Thu 8–9) Arco Birthday Party (Thu 9-9:30) Cities Service Concerts (Fri 8–9) The General Electric Concert (Sat 9–10) The Lucky Strike Dance Hour (Tue, Thu, Sat 10–11) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1931–32 The Chase and Sanborn Hour starring Eddie Cantor (Sun 8–9) The Goldbergs (Wed 8-8:30) The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour with Rudy Vallée (Thu 8–9) Sherlock Holmes (Thu 9:30-10) Major Bowes (Fri 7:00–7:30) The Majestic Theater of the Air (Fri 9:30-10) The Lucky Strike Magic Carpet Show (Tue, Thu, Sat 10–11) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1932–33 The Goldbergs (Weeknights 7:45–8:00) Gypsies Concert (Mon 9-9:30) The Parade of States (Mon 9:30-10) Ed Wynn starring in the Texaco Star Theater (Tuesday 9:30-10) The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour with Rudy Vallée (Thu 8–9) The Lucky Strike Magic Carpet Show (Tue, Thu, Sat 10–11) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1933–34 PRIMETIME Phil Spitalny (Sun 7–8) The Chase and Sanborn Hour starring Eddie Cantor and Jimmy Durante (Sun 8–9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (Sun 9-9:30) The Chevrolet Program featuring Jack Benny (Sun 10-10:30) Gypsies (Mon 9-9:30) The Lucky Strike Magic Carpet Show (Wed 8-8:30) The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour with Rudy Vallée (Thu 8–9) Fred Allen & His Gang (Fri 9-9:30) Lum and Abner's Sociable (Fri 10:30-11) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1934–35 PRIMETIME Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (Sun 9-9:30) Ed Wynn (Tue 9:30-10) Mary Pickford (Wed 8-8:30) Town Hall Tonight, with Fred Allen (Wed 9–10) Guy Lombardo (Wed 10-10:30) The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour with Rudy Vallée (Thu 8–9) WEEKNIGHTS Frank Buck (7:45-8) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1935–36 PRIMETIME Major Bowes Amateur Hour (Sun 8–9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (Sun 9-9:30) One Man's Family (Tue 8-8:30) Fred Allen (Tue 9–10) The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour with Rudy Vallée (Thu 8–9) The True Story Court of Human Relations (Fri 9:30–10:30) Campus Revue (Fri 10:30-11) Your Hit Parade, with Fred Astaire (Sat 8–9) WEEKDAYS Tom Mix (5:30–5:45) Clara, Lu, and Em (5:45-6) News (6:30–6:45) Billy and Betty (6:45-7) Amos 'n' Andy (7-7:15) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1936–37 PRIMETIME A. L. Alexander's Goodwill Court (Sun 8-8:30) Fred Astaire (Tue 9:30-10) One Man's Family (Wed 8-8:30) Fred Allen (Wed 9–10) Your Hit Parade (Wed 10-10:30) Rudy Vallée's Royal Gelatin Hour (Thu 8–9) The True Story Court of Human Relations (Fri 9:30-10) Snow Village Sketches (Sat 9-9:30) Irvin S. Cobb (Sat 10:30-11) WEEKDAYS Tom Mix (5:15–5:30) Jack Armstrong (5:30–5:45) Billy and Betty (6:45-7) Amos 'n' Andy (7-7:15) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1937–38 PRIMETIME Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (Sun 9-9:30) Rising Musical Stars (Sun 10–11) Burns & Allen (Mon 8-8:30) Fibber McGee & Molly (Mon 9-9:30) Vox Poppers & Questions (Tue 9-9:30) One Man's Family (Wed 8-8:30) Rudy Vallée's Royal Gelatin Hour (Thu 8–9) Cities Service Concerts (Fri 8–9) The True Story Court of Human Relations (Fri 9:30-10) The First Nighter Program (Fri 10-10:30) Ripley's Believe it or Not (Sat 8-830) DAYTIME Jack Armstrong (5:30–5:45) Little Orphan Annie (5:45-6) Don Winslow of the Navy (6:15–6:30) Billy and Betty (6:45-7) Amos 'n' Andy (7-7:15) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1938–39 PRIMETIME Edgar Bergen & Charlie McCarthy (Sun 8–9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (Sun 9-9:30) Fibber McGee & Molly (Tue 9:30-10) Bob Hope (Tue 10-10:30) One Man's Family (Wed 8-8:30) Tommy Dorsey (Wed 8:30-9) Kay Kyser (Wed 10–11) Rudy Vallée's Royal Gelatin Hour (Thu 8–9) Robert Young (Thu 9–10) Bing Crosby (Thu 10–11) Death Valley Days (Fri 9:30-10) Fred Waring (Sat 8:30-9) Vox Pop (Sat 9-9:30) America Dances (Sat 9:30-10) DAYTIME The Guiding Light (3:45-4) Backstage Wife (4-4:15) Stella Dallas (4:15–4:30) Life Can Be Beautiful (4:30–4:45) Girl Alone (4:45-5) Dick Tracy (5-5:15) Your Family and Mine (5:15–5:30) Jack Armstrong (5:30–5:45) Little Orphan Annie (5:45-6) Amos 'n' Andy (7-7:15) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1939–40 PRIMETIME SUNDAY Edgar Bergen (8–9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (9-9:30) MONDAY Dr. I.Q. (9-9:30) TUESDAY Johnny Presents (8-8:30) Battle of the Sexes (9-9:30) Fibber McGee & Molly (9:30-10) Bob Hope's Show (10-10:30) Uncle Walter's Doghouse (10:30-11) WEDNESDAY Hollywood Playhouse (8-8:30) Red Skelton (8:30-9) Fred Allen (9-9:30) George Jessel (9:30-10) Kay Kyser (10–11) THURSDAY One Man's Family (8-8:30) Those We Love (8:30-9) Good News of 1940 (9–10) FRIDAY Lucille Manners (8–9) George Jessel (9:30-10) Guy Lombardo (10-10:30) The Story Behind the Headlines (10:30-11) SATURDAY Jimmy Dorsey (8-8:30) The Gag Busters with Milton Berle (8:30-9) Death Valley Days (9:30-10) Benny Goodman (10-10:30) DAYTIME Mary Martin (3–3:15) Ma Perkins (3:15–3:30) Pepper Young's Family (3:30–3:45) The Guiding Light (3:45-4) Backstage Wife (4-4:15) Stella Dallas (4:15–4:30) Vic and Sade (4:30–4:45) Girl Alone (5-5:15) The O'Neills (5:15–5:30) Jack Armstrong (5:30–5:45) Little Orphan Annie (5:45-6) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1940–41 PRIMETIME SUNDAY Artie Shaw (7:30-8) Edgar Bergen (8-8:30) One Man's Family (8:30-9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (9-9:30) MONDAY Burns & Allen (7:30-8) Dr. I.Q. (9-9:30) Showboat (9:30-10) TUESDAY Johnny Presents (8-8:30) Treasure Chest (8:30-9) We the People (9-9:30) Fibber McGee & Molly (9:30-10) Bob Hope (10-10:30) Uncle Walter's Doghouse (10:30-11) WEDNESDAY Cavalcade of America (7:30-8) Hollywood Playhouse (8-8:30) Plantation Party (8:30-9) Time to Smile w/ Eddie Cantor (9-9:30) Mr. District Attorney (9:30-10) Kay Kyser (10–11) THURSDAY Bob Crosby's Dixieland Band (7:30-8) Good News of 1940 (8–8:30) The Aldrich Family (8:30-9) Music Hall (9–10) Rudy Vallee (10-10:30) FRIDAY Alec Templeton Time (7:30-8) Lucille Manners (8-8:30) Everyman's Theater (9-9:30) Wings of Destiny (10-10:30) SATURDAY Knickerbocker Playhouse (8-8:30) Truth or Consequences (8:30-9) National Barn Dance (9–10) Station E-Z-R-A (10–10:30) Gene Krupa (10:30-11) DAYTIME Mary Martin (3–3:15) Ma Perkins (3:15–3:30) Pepper Young's Family (3:30–3:45) Vic & Sade (3:45-4) Backstage Wife (4-4:15) Stella Dallas (4:15–4:30) Lorenzo Jones (4:30–4:45) Young Widder Brown (4:45-5) Girl Alone (5-5:15) Life Can Be Beautiful (5:15–5:30) Jack Armstrong (5:30–5:45) The O'Neills (5:45-6) List of NBC Red Network Programs from 1941–42 PRIMETIME SUNDAY Band Wagon (7:30-8) Edgar Bergen (8-8:30) One Man's Family (8:30-9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (9-9:30) The American Album of Familiar Music (9:30-10) Sherlock Holmes (10:30-11) MONDAY Cavalcade of America (7:30-8) Dr. I.Q. (9-9:30) TUESDAY Burns and Allen (7:30-8) Johnny Presents (8-8:30) Horace Heidt (8:30-9) Battle of the Sexes (9-9:30) Fibber McGee & Molly (9:30-10) Bob Hope (10-10:30) WEDNESDAY Thin Man Adventures (8-8:30) Party from Plantation (8:30-9) Eddie Cantor (9-9:30) Mr. District Attorney (9:30-10) Kay Kyser (10–11) THURSDAY Xavier Cugat (7:30-8) Fannie Brice (8-8:30) The Aldrich Family (8:30-9) The Music Hall Hour (9–10) Vallee/Barrymore Show (10-10:30) Frank Fay (10:30-11) FRIDAY Rhyme & Rhythm (7:30-8) Lucille Manners (8–830) Information Please (830–9) Abe Lyman (9–930) Uncle Walter's Doghouse (930–10) Aviation Drama (10–1030) SATURDAY Knickerbocker Playhouse (8–830) Truth or Consequences (830–9) National Barn Dance (9–10) DAYTIME Against the Storm (3–315) Ma Perkins (315–330) The Guiding Light (330–345) Vic & Sade (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Lorenzo Jones (430–445) Young Widder Brown (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) We the Abbots (530–545) Negro Male Quartet (545–6) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1942–43 PRIMETIME SUNDAY The Grape Nuts Program starring Jack Benny (7–730) Kay Kyser (730–8) Edgar Bergen (8–830) One Man's Family (830–9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (9–930) The American Album of Familiar Music (930–10) Bill Stern on Sports (10–1030) MONDAY Cavalcade of America (8–830) Dr. I.Q. (930–10) TUESDAY Johnny Presents (8–830) Horace Heidt (830–9) Battle of the Sexes (9–930) Fibber McGee & Molly (930–10) Bob Hope (10–1030) Red Skelton (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Thin Man Adventures (8–830) Tommy Dorsey (830–9) Eddie Cantor (9–930) Mr. District Attorney (930–10) Kay Kyser (10–11) THURSDAY Abbott & Costello (730–8) Fannie Brice (8–830) The Aldrich Family (830–9) Bing Crosby (9–10) Rudy Vallee (10–1030) The March of Time (1030–11) FRIDAY Tommy Riggs and Betty Lou (7:30-8) Lucille Manners (8–830) Information Please (830–9) Plantation Party (930–10) People Are Funny (10–1030) SATURDAY Ellery Queen (730–8) Abie's Irish Rose (8–830) Truth or Consequences (830–9) National Barn Dance (9–930) Can You Top This? (930–10) DAYTIME Mary Martin (3–315) Ma Perkins (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Lorenzo Jones (430–445) Young Widder Brown (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) Just Plain Bill (530–545) Front Page Farrell (545–6) H.V. Kaltenborn (745–8) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1943–44 PRIMETIME SUNDAY The Grape Nuts Program starring Jack Benny (7–730) Bandwagon (730–8) Edgar Bergen (8–830) One Man's Family (830–9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (9–930) The American Album of Familiar Music (930–10) Bill Stern on Sports (10–1030) MONDAY Cavalcade of America (8–830) Dr. I.Q. (930–10) Information Please (1030–11) TUESDAY Johnny Presents (8–830) Horace Heidt (830–9) Mystery Theater (9–930) Fibber McGee & Molly (930–10) Bob Hope (10–1030) Red Skelton (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Mr. and Mrs. North (8–830) Beat the Band (830–9) Eddie Cantor (9–930) Mr. District Attorney (930–10) Kay Kyser (10–11) THURSDAY Bob Burns (730–8) Coffee Time (8–830) The Aldrich Family (830–9) Bing Crosby (9–930) Joan Davis (930–10) Garry Moore & Jimmy Durante (10–1030) The March of Time (1030–11) FRIDAY Lucille Manners (8–830) All Time Hit Parade (830–9) Waltz Time (9–930) People Are Funny (930–10) SATURDAY Ellery Queen (730–8) Abie's Irish Rose (8–830) Truth or Consequences (830–9) National Barn Dance (9–930) Can You Top This? (930–10) DAYTIME Women of America (3–315) Ma Perkins (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Lorenzo Jones (430–445) Young Widder Brown (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) Just Plain Bill (530–545) Front Page Farrell (545–6) Bill Stern's Sports (645–7) H.V. Kaltenborn (745–8) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1944–45 PRIMETIME SUNDAY The Lucky Strike Program starring Jack Benny (7–730) Bandwagon (730–8) Edgar Bergen (8–830) One Man's Family (830–9) The American Album of Familiar Music (930–10) Jackie Gleason & Les Tremayne (1030–11) MONDAY Cavalcade of America (8–830) Information Please (930–10) Dr. I.Q. (1030–11) TUESDAY Ginny Simms (8–830) A Date With Judy (830–9) Mystery Theater (9–930) Fibber McGee and Molly (930–10) Bob Hope (10–1030) Hildegarde (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Mr. and Mrs. North (8–830) Eddie Cantor (9–930) Mr. District Attorney (930–10) Kay Kyser (10–11) THURSDAY Bob Burns (730–8) Frank Morgan (8–830) Dinah Shore (830–9) Bing Crosby (9–930) Joan Davis (930–10) Abbott & Costello (10–1030) The March of Time (1030–11) FRIDAY Highways in Melody (8–830) Duffy's Tavern (830–9) Waltz Time (9–930) Art Linkletter (930–10) SATURDAY The World's Great Novels (7–730) Ellery Queen (730–8) Rudy Vallee (8–830) Truth or Consequences (830–9) National Barn Dance (9–930) Can You Top This? (930–10) Barry Wood & Patsy Kelly (10–1030) Grand Ole Opry (1030–11) DAYTIME The Guiding Light (2–215) Women of America (3–315) Ma Perkins (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Lorenzo Jones (430–445) Young Widder Brown (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) Just Plain Bill (530–545) Front Page Farrell (545–6) Lowell Thomas (645–7) H. V. Kaltenborn (745–8) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1945–46 PRIMETIME SUNDAY The Lucky Strike Program starring Jack Benny (7–730) Bandwagon (730–8) Edgar Bergen (8–830) Fred Allen (830–9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (9–930) The American Album of Familiar Music (930–10) Meet Me at Perky's (1030–11) MONDAY Cavalcade of America (8–830) Information Please (930–10) Dr. I.Q. (1030–11) TUESDAY The Everything Boys (730–8) Johnny Presents (8–830) A Date with Judy (830–9) Amos 'n Andy (9–930) Fibber McGee and Molly (930–10) Bob Hope (10–1030) Hildegarde (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Mr. and Mrs. North (8–830) Sigmund Romberg (830–9) Eddie Cantor (9–930) Mr. District Attorney (930–10) Kay Kyser (10–11) THURSDAY Bob Burns (730–8) Burns and Allen (8–830) Dinah Shore (830–9) Music Hall (9–930) Jack Haley (930–10) Abbott and Costello (10–1030) Rudy Vallee (1030–11) FRIDAY Melody Highways (8–830) Duffy's Tavern (830–9) Art Linkletter (9–930) Waltz Time (930–10) Mystery Theater (10–1030) SATURDAY The Life of Riley (8–830) Truth or Consequences (830–9) National Barn Dance (9–930) Can You Top This? (930–10) Judy Canova (10–1030) Grand Ole Opry (1030–11) DAYTIME The Guiding Light (2–215) Women of America (3–315) Ma Perkins (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Lorenzo Jones (430–445) Young Widder Brown (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) Just Plain Bill (530–545) Front Page Farrell (545–6) Lowell Thomas (645–7) H. V. Kaltenborn List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1946–47 PRIMETIME SUNDAY The Lucky Strike Program starring Jack Benny (7–730) Phil Harris (730–8) Edgar Bergen (8–830) Fred Allen (830–9) Merry-Go-Round (9–930) The American Album of Familiar Music (930–10) Don Ameche (10–1030) Meet Me at Perky's (1030–11) MONDAY Cavalcade of America (8–830) Howard Barlow (830–9) Donald Voorhees (9–930) Victor Borge (930–10) The Contented Hour (10–1030) Dr. I.Q. (1030–11) TUESDAY Rudy Vallee (8–830) A Date with Judy (830–9) Amos 'n' Andy (9–930) Fibber McGee and Molly (930–10) Bob Hope (10–1030) Red Skelton (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Mr. and Mrs. North (8–830) The Great Gildersleeve (830–9) Duffy's Tavern (9–930) Mr. District Attorney (930–10) Frank Morgan (10–1030) Kay Kyser (1030–11) THURSDAY Dennis Day (730–8) Burns and Allen (8–830) The Aldrich Family (830–9) Music Hall (9–930) The Village Store with Jack Haley (930–10) Abbott & Costello (10–1030) Eddie Cantor (1030–11) FRIDAY Highways in Melody (8–830) Alan Young (830–9) Art Linkletter (9–930) Waltz Time (930–10) Mystery Theater (10–1030) SATURDAY The Life of Riley (8–830) Truth or Consequences (830–9) Roy Rogers (9–930) Can You Top This? (930–10) Judy Canova (10–1030) Grand Ole Opry (1030–11) DAYTIME The Guiding Light (2–215) Life Can Be Beautiful (3–315) Ma Perkins (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Lorenzo Jones (430–445) Young Widder Brown (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) Just Plain Bill (530–545) Front Page Farrell (545–6) Lowell Thomas (645–7) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1947–48 PRIMETIME SUNDAY The Lucky Strike Program starring Jack Benny (7–730) Phil Harris (730–8) Edgar Bergen (8–830) Fred Allen (830–9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (9–930) The American Album of Familiar Music (930–10) Take It or Leave It (10–1030) The Big Break (1030–11) MONDAY Cavalcade of America (8–830) Howard Barlow (830–9) Donald Voorhees (9–930) Dr. I.Q. (930–10) The Contented Hour (10–1030) Fred Waring (1030–11) TUESDAY Milton Berle (8–830) A Date with Judy (830–9) Amos 'n' Andy (9–930) Fibber McGee and Molly (930–10) Bob Hope (10–1030) Red Skelton (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Dennis Day (8–830) The Great Gildersleeve (830–9) Duffy's Tavern (9–930) Mr. District Attorney (930–10) The Big Story (10–1030) Jimmy Durante (1030–11) THURSDAY The Aldrich Family (730–8) Burns and Allen (8–830) Music Hall (830–9) The Village Store (930–10) Bob Hawk (10–1030) Eddie Cantor (1030–11) FRIDAY Highways in Melody (8–830) Can You Top This? (830–9) Art Linkletter (9–930) Waltz Time (930–10) Mystery Theater (10–1030) SATURDAY The Life of Riley (8–830) Truth or Consequences (830–9) Your Hit Parade starring Frank Sinatra (9–930) Judy Canova (930–10) Kay Kyser (10–1030) Grand Ole Opry (1030–11) DAYTIME Life Can Be Beautiful (3–315) Ma Perkins (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Lorenzo Jones (430–445) Young Widder Brown (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) Just Plain Bill (530–545) Front Page Farre List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1948–49 PRIMETIME SUNDAY Ozzie and Harriet (630–7) The Lucky Strike Program starring Jack Benny (7–730) Phil Harris (730–8) Edgar Bergen (8–830) Fred Allen (830–9) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (9–930) The American Album of Familiar Music (930–10) Take It or Leave It (10–1030) Horace Heidt (1030–11) MONDAY Cavalcade of America (8–830) Howard Barlow (830–9) Don Voorhees (9–930) Dr. I.Q. (930–10) Buddy Clark (10–1030) x (1030–11) TUESDAY Mel Torme (8–830) A Date with Judy (830–9) Bob Hope (9–930) Fibber McGee and Molly (930–10) Big Town (10–1030) Art Linkletter (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Blondie (8–830) The Great Gildersleeve (830–9) Duffy's Tavern (9–930) Mr. District Attorney (930–10) The Big Story (10–1030) Curtain Time (1030–11) THURSDAY The Aldrich Family (730–8) Burns and Allen (8–830) Music Hall (830–9) The Village Store (930–10) Screen Guild Theater (10–1030) Fred Waring (1030–11) FRIDAY The Band of America (8–830) Jimmy Durante (830–9) Eddie Cantor (9–930) Red Skelton (930–10) The Life of Riley (10–1030) Bill Stern on Sports (1030–1045) SATURDAY Star Theater (8–830) Truth or Consequences (830–9) Your Hit Parade starring Frank Sinatra (9–930) Judy Canova (930–10) Dennis Day (10–1030) Grand Ole Opry (1030–11) DAYTIME Double or Nothing (2–215) Life Can Be Beautiful (3–315) Ma Perkins (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Lorenzo Jones (415–430) Young Widder Brown (430–445) Stella Dallas (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) Just Plain Bill (530–545) Front Page Farrell (545–6) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1949–50 PRIMETIME SUNDAY Hollywood Calling (630–730) Phil Harris (730–8) Sam Spade (8–830) Theater Guild (830–930) The American Album of Familiar Music (930–10) Take It or Leave It (10–1030) Bob Crosley (1030–11) MONDAY The Railroad Hour (8–830) Howard Barlow (830–9) The Bell Telephone Hour (9–930) Band of America (930–10) Director's Playhouse (10–1030) Guy Lombardo (1030–11) TUESDAY Boston Blackie (730–8) Cavalcade of America (8–830) Me and Janie (830–9) Bob Hope (9–930) Fibber McGee & Molly (930–10) Big Town (10–1030) Art Linkletter (1030–11) WEDNESDAY This is Your Life (8–830) The Great Gildersleeve (830–9) Break the Bank (9–930) Mr. District Attorney (930–10) The Big Story (10–1030) Curtain Time (1030–11) THURSDAY Red Ryder (730–8) The Aldrich Family (8–830) Father Knows Best (830–9) Screen Guild Players (9–930) Duffy's Tavern (930–10) The Supper Club (10–1030) Dragnet (1030–11) FRIDAY Henry Morgan (8–830) Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis (830–9) The Life of Riley (9–930) Jimmy Durante (930–10) Dr. I.Q. (10–1030) Bill Stern on Sports (1030–1045) SATURDAY Hollywood Star Theater (8–830) Truth or Consequences (830–9) Your Hit Parade (9–930) Dennis Day (930–10) Judy Canova (10–1030) Grand Ole Opry (1030–11) DAYTIME Double or Nothing (2–215) Life Can Be Beautiful (3–315) The Road of Life (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Lorenzo Jones (415–430) Young Widder Brown (430–445) Stella Dallas (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) Just Plain Bill (530–545) Front Page Farrell (545–6) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1950–51 PRIMETIME SUNDAY Western Caravan (6:30-7) Reward (7-7:30) Groucho Comes Home (8-8:30) Theater Guild on the Air (8:30–9:30) The American Album of Familiar Music (9:30-10) The $64 Question (10-10:30) Meet Me In St. Louis (10:30-11) MONDAY The Railroad Hour (8-8:30) Howard Barlow (8:30-9) The Bell Telephone Hour (9-9:30) Band of America (9:30-10) NBC Symphony Orchestra (10–11) TUESDAY Cavalcade of America (8-8:30) Carmen Dragon (8:30-9) Bob Hope (9–930) Fibber McGee & Molly (930–10) Big Town (10–1030) Art Linkletter (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Halls of Ivy (8–830) The Great Gildersleeve (830–9) Groucho Marx (9–930) Mr. District Attorney (930–10) The Big Story (10–1030) Richard Diamond, Private Detective (1030–11) THURSDAY The Aldrich Family (8–830) Father Knows Best (830–9) Dragnet (9–930) We, the People (930–10) Top Secret (10–1030) Charles Boyer (1030–11) FRIDAY Cloak and Dagger (8–830) A Man Called X (830–9) Nightbeat (9–930) Confidential (930–10) The Life of Riley (10–1030) Bill Stern on Sports (1030–1045) SATURDAY Cass Daley (8–830) Hedda Hopper (830–9) Your Hit Parade starring Guy Lombardo (9–930) Dennis Day (930–10) Judy Canova (10–1030) Grand Ole Opry (1030–11) DAYTIME Double or Nothing (2–230) Life Can Be Beautiful (3–315) The Road of Life (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Lorenzo Jones (415–430) Young Widder Brown (430–445) Stella Dallas (445–5) When a Girl Marries (5–515) Portia Faces Life (515–530) Just Plain Bill (530–545) Front Page Farrell (545–6) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1951–52 PRIMETIME SUNDAY The Big Show (630–8) Reward Harris and Faye (8–830) Theater Guild (830–930) The Jubilee Show (930–10) Mr. Moto (10–1030) MONDAY The Railroad Hour (8–830) Howard Barlow (830–9) The Bell Telephone Hour (9–930) Band of America (930–10) Mario Lanza (10–1030) TUESDAY Cavalcade of America (8–830) Hollywood Theater (830–9) Bob Hope (9–930) Fibber McGee and Molly (930–10) Big Town (10–1030) Playhouse on Broadway (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Halls of Ivy (8–830) The Great Gildersleeve (830–9) Groucho Marx (9–930) The Big Story (930–10) Barrie Crane (10–1030) Bold Venture (1030–11) THURSDAY Father Knows Best (8–830) Mr. Keen (830–9) Dragnet (9–930) Counterspy (930–10) Your Hit Parade (10–1030) FRIDAY Roy Rogers (8–830) Martin and Lewis (830–9) Meredith Willson (9–930) You Can't Take It with You (930–10) SATURDAY Jane Ace (8–830) Bob and Ray (830–9) Talent Search (9–930) Grand Ole Opry (930–10) Dangerous Assignment (10–1030) Roundup Time (1030–11) DAYTIME Double or Nothing (2–230) Life Can Be Beautiful (3–315) The Road of Life (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Lorenzo Jones (415–430) Young Widder Brown (430–445) My House (445–5) Front Page Farrell (5–530) Lorenzo Jones (530–545) Bob and Ray (545–6) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1952–53 PRIMETIME SUNDAY Meet Your Match (7–730) Freedom U.S.A. (730–8) Harris and Faye (8–830) Theater Guild (830–930) Dragnet (930–10) Meet the Press (10–1030) American Forum (1030–11) MONDAY The Railroad Hour (8–830) Howard Barlow (830–9) The Bell Telephone Hour (9–930) Band of America (930–10) TUESDAY Cavalcade of America (8–830) Red Skelton (830–9) Martin and Lewis (9–930) Fibber McGee & Molly (930–10) Two For the Money (10–1030) Allan Jones (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Walk a Mile (8–830) The Great Gildersleeve (830–9) Groucho Marx (9–930) The Big Story (930–10) Barrie Craig (10–1030) Cavalcade of Music (1030–11) THURSDAY Roy Rogers (8–830) Father Knows Best (830–9) Truth or Consequences (9–930) Eddie Cantor (930–10) Touchdown U.S.A. (10–1030) Listening Glass (1030–11) FRIDAY Your Hit Parade (8–830) Music by Mantovani (830–9) Best Plays (9–10) Curtain Time (1030–11) SATURDAY Bob and Ray (8–830) Accidentally Speaking (830–9) Pee Wee King (9–930) Grand Ole Opry (930–10) Reuben, Reuben (10–1030) Remember When (1030–11) DAYTIME Life Can Be Beautiful (3–315) The Road of Life (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Young Widder Brown (430–445) My House (445–5) Plain Bill Farrell (5–530) Lorenzo Jones (530–545) Doctor's Wife (545–6) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1953–54 PRIMETIME SUNDAY Hollywood Star Playhouse (7–730) Freedom U.S.A. (730–8) Hollywood Story (8–830) Royal Theater (830–9) Stroke of Fate (9–930) The Six Shooter (930–10) Last Man Out (10–1030) Meet the Press (1030–11) MONDAY Railroad Hour (8–830) The Voice Of Firestone (830–9) The Bell Telephone Hour (9–930) Cities Service Band of America (930–10) TUESDAY Barrie Craig (830–9) Dragnet (9–930) John Cameron Swayze and the News (930–935) Rocky Fortune (935–10) Curtain Time (1030–11) WEDNESDAY Walk a Mile (8–830) The Great Gildersleeve (830–9) You Bet Your Life (9–930) The Big Story (930–10) Cavalcade of Music (1030–11) THURSDAY Roy Rogers (8–830) Father Knows Best (830–9) Truth or Consequences (9–930) Eddie Cantor (930–10) Tomorrow's Tops (1030–11) FRIDAY Bob Hope (830–9) Phil Harris/Alice Faye Show (9–930) House of Glass (930–10) Cavalcade of the Year (1030–11) SATURDAY Baron and the Bee (9–930) Harris and Faye (930–10) Hillbilly Jukebox (10–1030) Pee Wee King (1030–11) DAYTIME Life Can Be Beautiful (3–315) The Road of Life (315–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Young Widder Brown (430–445) Plain Bill Farrell (5–530) Lorenzo Jones (530–545) It Pays To Be Married (545–6) Fibber McGee & Molly (10–1015) Can You Top This? (1015–1030) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1954–55 PRIMETIME SUNDAY Barometer 1954 (7–8) Dr. Sixgun (8–830) Barrie Craig (830–9) We, the Abbotts (9–930) Easy Money (930–10) Meet the Press (1030–11) MONDAY Best of All (8–9) The Bell Telephone Hour (9–930) Cities Service Band of America (930–10) Fibber McGee & Molly (10–1015) TUESDAY People Are Funny (8–830) Dragnet (830–9) Lux Radio Theater (9–10) Fibber McGee & Molly (10–1015) WEDNESDAY Dinah Shore (8–815) Frank Sinatra (815–830) Walk a Mile (830–9) You Bet Your Life (9–930) The Big Story (930–10) Fibber McGee & Molly (10–1015) Cavalcade of Music (1030–11) THURSDAY Roy Rogers (8–830) The Scarlet Pimpernel (9–930) When the Wind Blows (930–10) Fibber McGee & Molly (10–1015) June Pickens (1030–11) FRIDAY Dinah Shore (8–815) Frank Sinatra (815–830) Friday with Dave Garroway (9–10) SATURDAY Boston Symphony Orchestra (830–930) Grand Ole Opry (930–10) Dude Ranch Jamboree (10–1030) Hillbilly Jukebox (1030–11) DAYTIME A Woman in Love (3–330) Pepper Young's Family (330–345) Right to Happiness (345–4) Backstage Wife (4–415) Stella Dallas (415–430) Young Widder Brown (430–445) Just Plain Bill (5–515) Lorenzo Jones (515–530) Hotel for Pets (530–545) It Pays To Be Married (545–6) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1955–56 PRIMETIME Meet the Press (Sun 6-630) Monitor (Sun 630-12) Boston Symphony (Mon 815-9) The Bell Telephone Hour (Mon 9-930) Band of America (Mon 930-10) Fibber McGee (Mon 10-1015) Ed Murphy (Mon 1015-11) People Are Funny (Tue 8-830) Dragnet (Tue 830-9) Your Radio Theater (Tue 9–10) Cavalcade of Music (Wed 8-830) Groucho Marx (Wed 9-930) Truth or Consequences (Wed 930-10) The Great Gildersleeve (Thu 8-830) X Minus One (Thu 9-930) Dinah Shore (Fri 8-815) Frank Sinatra (Fri 815–830) Friday with Dave Garroway (Fri 9–10) Monitor (Sat 8-1030) Grand Ole Opry (Sat 1030-11) Dude Ranch Jamboree (Sat 10-1030) Hillbilly Jukebox (Sat 1030-11) DAYTIME One Man's Family (245–3) Wonderful City (3–330) Lorenzo Jones (330–345) Doctor's Wife (345–4) Right to Happiness (4–415) Stella Dallas(415–430) Young Widder Brown(430–445) Pepper Young's Family (445–5) Ed Murphy (5–6) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1956–57 PRIMETIME Meet the Press (Sun 630-7) Monitor (Sun 7–11) Boston Symphony (Mon 815-9) Dragnet (Tue 8-830) People Are Funny (Wed 8-830) X Minus One (Wed 9-930) Cavalcade of Music (Wed 930-10) The Great Gildersleeve (Thu 8-830) Bob Hope (Fri 8-830) Cavalcade of America (Fri 830-9) Monitor (Sat 7–11) DAYTIME Hilltop House (330–345) Pepper Young's Family (345–4) In My House (4–415) Mary McBride(415–430) One Man's Family (745–8) List of NBC Radio Network Programs from 1957–58 PRIMETIME SUNDAY: Meet the Press (630–7) Monitor (7–11) MONDAY: You Bet Your Life (8-8:30) Walter O'Keefe (8:30-9) The Bell Telephone Hour (9-9:30) TUESDAY: The Great Gildersleeve (8-8:30) Walter O'Keefe (8:30-10) WEDNESDAY: People Are Funny (8-8:30) Walter O'Keefe (8:30-10) THURSDAY: X Minus One (8-8:30) Walter O'Keefe (8:30-10) FRIDAY: Bob Hope (8-8:30, repeats) Monitor (8:30-10) SATURDAY Monitor (6:30–9:30) Grand Ole Opry (9:30-10) Monitor (10–12 A.M.) DAYTIME One Man's Family (2:30–2:45) Pepper Young's Family (3:45-4) Sunoco Three-Star Extra (6:45-7) Morgan Beatty (7:30–7:45)
"1981 KARO turned down by Multnomah County to build four, 172 foot towers on Government Island." They already had a construction permit and if they could've built it out, they would've had a competitive signal. The idea appeared to be to take their licensed 5KW directional array and move it south from NE 34th ST in Vancouver. This would've moved the null coverage from north of the Columbia River to about SE Flavel ST, covering virtually all of the populated area. With all that water, ground conductivity could've been great. On top of that, KARO was a very decent sounding Top 40. I was really disappointed, when they couldn't build it.
Here is more aboht The Old Time Radio Shows that I carry..on SRN Adventure Anthology Comedy Commercials Crime Drama Espionage Historical Horror Juvenile Music Mystery Police Detective Private Detective Quiz Science Fiction Serial Soap Opera Variety Western World War II (sub) Drama anthology,Teen situation comedy,Murder Melodrama,Espionage Melodrama,Adventure melodrama,Juvenile adventure serial,Mystery terror,Musical Variety,Mystery-trick show,Crime-Drama,comedy and satire,comedy-variety,Mystery/quiz show,Joke swapping panel show(s),Historical dramatic anthology,Dramatic Suspense Anthology,Experimental Dramatic Anthology,Spectacular wartime variety,Serialized Comedy Drama,Romantic Drama,Globetrotting Adv/general espionage,Light drama, Horror-supernatural drama,Mystery-horror anthology,Juvenile western thriller drama,dialect comedy,Music and talk for kids,Soap Opera,Outstanding Dark Fantasy,Hollywood dramatic anthology,Musical Madness,Police with western flavor,Popular Music,Juvenile space adventure,Musical variety with drama..and on and on.. Shows such as.. 2000 Plus 21st Precinct The A&P Gypsies Abbott and Costello Abbott Mysteries Abie's Irish Rose Academy Award Theater Accordiana Acousticon Hour Add a Line Adult Education Series Adventures by Morse Adventure Parade The Adventures of the Abbotts The Adventures of Babe Ruth The Adventures of Champion The Adventures of Charlie Chan The Adventures of Dick Cole The Adventures of Ellery Queen The Adventures of Father Brown The Adventures of Frank Merriwell The Adventures of Frank Race The Adventures of Maisie The Adventures of Nero Wolfe The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet The Adventures of Philip Marlowe The Adventures of Sam Spade The Adventures of Superman The Adventures of the Thin Man Against the Storm The Air Adventures of Jimmie Allen A.L. Alexander's Goodwill Court A.L. Alexander's Mediation Board The Alan Young Show The Aldrich Family Alec Templeton Time Alka-Seltzer Time Al Pearce Amanda of Honeymoon Hill The Amazing Mr. Malone The Amazing Nero Wolfe The American Album of Familiar Music American Portraits The American School of the Air Amos 'n' Andy Andy and Virginia Ann of the Airlanes Arch Oboler's Plays Archie Andrews Arco Birthday Party The Arkansas Traveler The Armour Jester The Army Hour Art Baker's Notebook Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts The Atwater Kent Hour Aunt Jenny’s Real Life Stories Author's Playhouse Avalon Time The Baby Snooks Show Bachelor's Children Backstage Wife Barrie Craig, Confidential Investigator Beat the Band The Bell Telephone Hour Beulah The Bickersons The Big Show Big Sister The Big Story Big Town The Billie Burke Show Blackhawk The Black Mass The Black Museum Blackstone, the Magic Detective Blair of the Mounties Blind Date Blondie Blue Beetle Blue Ribbon Town Bob and Ray The Bob Crosby Show The Bob Hope Show Bold Venture Boston Blackie Box 13 Break the Bank Breakfast at Sardi's Breakfast in Hollywood Bright Star (a.k.a. Irene Dunne and Fred MacMurray Show) Bringing Up Father Broadway Is My Beat Buck Rogers in the 25th Century Bulldog Drummond Burns and Allen Cab Calloway's Quizzical Calling All Cars Calling All Detectives Camel Caravan The Campbell Playhouse Candid Microphone Candy Matson Can You Top This? Captain Midnight The Carnation Contented Hour The Carters of Elm Street The Casebook of Gregory Hood Case Dismissed Casey, Crime Photographer Cavalcade of America CBS Radio Workshop Challenge of the Yukon (aka Sergeant Preston of the Yukon) The Chamber Music Society of Lower Basin Street Chandu the Magician The Charlotte Greenwood Show The Chase and Sanborn Hour Chase and Sanborn Program Chesterfield Supper Club The Cinnamon Bear The Cisco Kid Clara, Lu, and Em Claybourne The Clicquot Club Eskimos Cloak and Dagger The Clock Club Fifteen The Collier Hour Columbia Presents Corwin Columbia Workshop Command Performance Counterspy The Couple Next Door The Creaking Door Crime Classics The Crime Club Crime Doctor Crime Does Not Pay Cruise of the Poll Parrot The Cuckoo Hour Damon Runyon Theatre Dan Dunn, Secret Operative #48 The Danny Kaye Show Dark Fantasy A Date with Judy The Dave Garroway Show A Day in the Life of Dennis Day The Day of the Triffids Dear John Death Valley Days Dick Tracy Dimension X Doc Savage The Dodge Victory Hour Don McNeil's Breakfast Club Dr. I.Q. Don Winslow of the Navy Dr. Christian Dr. Kildare Dragnet Drene Time Duffy's Tavern Dunninger Easy Aces The Edgar Bergen/Charlie McCarthy Show Ellery Queen Empire Builders Enna Jettick Melodies Escape Ethel and Albert The Eveready Hour Everything for the Boys Exploring Tomorrow Family Theater The Fat Man Father Knows Best The FBI in Peace and War Fibber McGee and Molly The First Nighter Program The Fitch Bandwagon The Five Mysteries Program Five Star Theater Flash Gordon Flywheel, Shyster, and Flywheel The Ford Sunday Evening Hour Ford Theater Fort Laramie The Fred Allen Show The Fred Waring Show Frontier Gentleman Gang Busters Gasoline Alley Gene and Glenn Gene Autry's Melody Ranch The General Mills Radio Adventure Theater G.I. Jive G.I. Journal The Goldbergs The Good Will Hour The Goon Show Granby's Green Acres Grand Central Station Grand Ole Opry The Greatest Story Ever Told The Great Gildersleeve The Green Hornet Great Moments in History The Guiding Light The Gulf Headliners Gunsmoke Guy Lombardo Hall of Fantasy The Halls of Ivy The Happiness Boys The Harold Peary Show Harvest of Stars Hashknife Hartley Have Gun, Will Travel Hawaii Calls Hear It Now Hello Americans The Henry Morgan Show Heritage over the Land The Hermit's Cave The High-Jinkers Hollywood Hotel Hollywood on the Air Hollywood Star Playhouse Hollywood Star Time Home of the Brave Honest Harold Honolulu Bound Hop Harrigan Horatio Hornblower The Hour of Saint Francis House of Myths House Party The Housewives' Protective League I Love a Mystery I Love Lucy I Was a Communist for the FBI In the Name of the Law Incredible, but True Indictment Information Please Inheritance Inner Sanctum Mysteries The Intimate Revue The Ipana Troubadors Irene Dunne and Fred MacMurray Show (a.k.a. Bright Star) The Irene Rich Show It Pays to Be Ignorant It's a Crime, Mr. Collins It's a Great Life It's Higgins, Sir! Jack Armstrong, the All-American Boy The Jack Benny Program Jean Shepherd Jeff Regan, Investigator The Jimmy Durante and Garry Moore Show Joanie's Tea Room The Joe E. Brown Show The Joe Penner Show John J. Anthony Johnny Dollar (Insurance Investigator) Johnny Modero, Pier 23 The Johnson Family (Jimmy Fiddler) John's Other Wife Jonathan Thomas and his Christmas on the Moon Jonathan Trimble, Esquire Joseph Marais and Miranda Jubilee The Judy Canova Show Junior G-Men Junior Miss Just Plain Bill The Jack Kirkwood Show The Kate Smith Hour Kay Kyser's Kollege of Musical Knowledge The Ken Murray Program Kitchen-Klatter Knickerbocker Playhouse Korn's-A-Krackin' Kraft Music Hall Land of the Lost Lear Radio Show Lest We Forget The Les Paul Show Let George Do It Let's Go to Town Let's Pretend Let's Pretend with Uncle Russ Life Can Be Beautiful The Life of Riley Life with Luigi Light of the World Light Up Time Lights Out The Lineup Little Orphan Annie The Lives of Harry Lime The Lone Ranger The Longines Symphonette Long John Nebel Lorenzo Jones Louella Parsons Luke Slaughter of Tombstone Lum and Abner Luncheon at Sardi's Lux Radio Theater Ma Perkins Magic Island The Magic Key of RCA Mail Call Major Bowes Amateur Hour Major Hoople A Man Called Jordan The Man Called X Mandrake the Magician Manhattan Merry-Go-Round Marie the Little French Princess Mark Trail The Marriage Martin and Lewis Martin Kane, Private Eye Mary Foster, Editor's Daughter Matinee Theater Maxwell House Showboat Mayor of the Town Meet Corliss Archer Meet Millie The Mercury Theater on the Air Mark Trail MGM Musical Comedy Theater of the Air MGM Theater of the Air Michael Shayne The Mickey Mouse Theater of the Air The Mildred Bailey Revue Millions for Defense The Milton Berle Show The Minute Men Molle Mystery Theater Monitor The Morey Amsterdam Show Mr and Mrs. Blandings Mr. and Mrs. North Mr. District Attorney Mr. Keen, Tracer of Lost Persons Mr. Moto Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch Murder and Mr. Malone Murder at Midnight Murder By Experts My Favorite Husband My Friend Irma Myrt & Marge The Mysterious Traveler Mystery House Mystery in the Air My True Story National Barn Dance The National Farm and Home Hour NBC Presents: Short Story NBC Symphony Orchestra The Nelson Eddy Show The New Adventures of Nero Wolfe The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Nick Carter, Master Detective Nightbeat Now Nordine The Ol' Dirt Dauber One Man's Family The Original Amateur Hour Orson Welles' Almanac Orson Welles Theater Our Gal Sunday Our Miss Brooks Ozark Jubilee Pabst Blue Ribbon Town Painted Dreams Palmolive Beauty Box Theater Parties at Pickfair The Passing Parade Pat Novak, for Hire The Penny Singleton Show People Are Funny Pepper Young's Family Perry Mason Pete Kelly's Blues Philco Radio Time The Phil Harris-Alice Faye Show Philo Vance Pick and Pat The Planet Man Portia Faces Life Ports of Call Pot o' Gold Professor Quiz Proudly We Hail Pursuit Point Sublime Queen for a Day Quick As a Flash Quiet, Please Quiz Kids Radio Reader's Digest The Railroad Hour Ranger Bill Ray Bolger Show Red Foley Show Red Ryder The Red Skelton Show Reg'lar Fellers Richard Diamond, Private Detective The Right to Happiness Road of Life Rocky Fortune Rocky Jordan Rogue's Gallery The Romance of Helen Trent Rosa Rio Rhythms Roxy and His Gang The Rudy Vallée Show The Sad Sack The Saint Sam 'n' Henry Screen Director's Playhouse The Screen Guild Theater The Sealtest Village Store The Shadow The Shadow of Fu Manchu Shell Chateau The Silver Eagle Silver Theater Sinclair Weiner Minstrels Singin' Sam The Six Shooter Sky King Sleep No More Smiley Burnette Smilin' Jack Soconyland Sketches Sophie Tucker and Her Show Space Patrol Speed Gibson of the International Secret Police The Spike Jones Show Spotlight Revue Squad Cars The Standard Hour Stand By for Crime The Stan Freberg Show Stars over Hollywood Stella Dallas Stop Me If You've Heard This One Stop the Music Stories of the Black Chamber The Strange Dr. Weird Studio One Suspense Take It or Leave It Tales of Fatima Tales of the Texas Rangers Tarzan Tennessee Ernie Show Tennessee Jed The Tenth Man Terry and the Pirates Thanks to the Yanks (Bob Hawk) That Brewster Boy That's Rich Theater 10:30 Theater Five Theater of Romance Theatre Guild on the Air The Couple Next Door This Is My Best This Is My Story This is Nora Drake This Is Your FBI This Is Your Life Those Websters Today's Children Tom Corbett, Space Cadet Tom Mix The Twelve Players Tommy Riggs and Betty Lou Topper Town Hall Town Hall Tonight Treasury Star Parade True Adventures of Junior G-Men The True Story Court of Human Relations Truth or Consequences Twenty Questions The Twenty-Second Letter Uncle Don Uncle Jim's Question Bee Uncle Whoa Bill The Unexpected Unshackled Valiant Lady Vic and Sade The Vikings Viva America The Voice of Firestone Vox Pop Voyage of the Scarlet Queen Waltz Time We the People The Weird Circle When a Girl Marries The Whisperer Whispering Streets The Whistler Who Said That? The Witch's Tale Woman in White The Wonder Show Words at War World Adventurer's Club The World We're Fighting For The Xavier Cugat Show X Minus One You Bet Your Life You Can't Do Business with Hitler Young Doctor Malone Young Widder Brown Your Hit Parade Your Story Hour Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar The Ziegfeld Follies of the Air and others..CBS Radio Mystery Theater,Sears Radio Theater The Zero Hour Imagination Theater. More Detail..and other shows.. The A&P Gypsies, variety, 1930, NBC-Red, 8:30-9:30 p.m. Mondays); The host and band leader was Harry Horlick; Announcers were Phillips Carlin and Milton Cross. A.L. Alexander's Goodwill Court, (1936, NBC, 30 minutes weekly) A.L. Alexander's Mediation Board, 1943–1952, Mutual, advice The Abbott and Costello Children's Show, children's, (ABC, 1947–1949) The Abbott and Costello Show, comedy, 30 minutes, (NBC - 1940, 1942–1947, ABC 1947-1949) Abbott Mysteries (Mutual Broadcasting System, 1945–1947, mystery, 30 minutes). Based on the novels by Frances Crane. The stars were Julie Stevens as Jean Abbott and Charles Webster as Pat Abbott. The writers included Howard Merrill and Ed Adamsom. The Abe Burrows Show, comedy, (1948, CBS, 15 minutes) Abie's Irish Rose, comedy, NBC, 1942–1944, 8:00-8:30 p.m. Sunday) Academy Award (radio), anthology, (CBS, 1946, 30 minutes); Music - Leith Stevens; Producer - Lee Engelbach; Adaptations - Frank Wilson Accordiana (1934, CBS, 8:30-9:00 p.m. Tuesday, with soprano Vivienne Segal, tenor Oliver Smith, and the Abe Lyman Orchestra) Acousticon Hour, (1927–1928, NBC, 5:30-6:00 p.m. Sundays) Action, 1945 anthology series; one episode - High Explosive with Jane Wyatt, Robert Lowery, and star and narrator William Gargan Add a Line, game, ABC, 1949, 30 minutes; Host - John Nelson The Adele Clark Show, variety, ABC, 1945–1946, 30 minutes; Host and Singer - Adele Clark; Announcer - Gene Kirby; Music - Jack Kelly and his orchestra Adult Education Series (1938–1957) Adventure Parade, anthology, MBS, 1946–1949, 15 minutes; Host/Storyteller - John Griggs; Announcer - George Hogan Adventures by Morse, adventure, syndicated, 1944, 30 minutes; Elliott Lewis, David Ellis, and Russell Thorson as Bart Friday; Barton Yarborough as Skip Turner; Writer/Producer - Carlton E. Morse The Adventures of Bill Lance, crime drama, ABC, 1947–1948, 30 minutes; Gerald Mohr as Bill Lance; Announcer - Owen James The Adventures of Champion, adventure, MBS, 1949–1950, 15 minutes. Adventures of Gene Autry's horse, Champion. The Adventures of Christopher Wells, crime drama, CBS, 1947–1948, 30 minutes. Myron McCormick and Les Damon as Christopher Wells, Charlotte Lawrence and Vicki Vola as Stacy McGill; orchestra - Peter von Streeden. The Adventures of Dick Cole, adventure, syndicated, 1942, 30 minutes. Dick Cole was a comic book character. Leon Janney played Dick Cole. The announcer was Paul Luther and music was by Lew White The Adventures of Ellery Queen (1939–1948) The Adventures of Father Brown, crime drama, MBS, 1945, 30 minutes The Adventures of Frank Merriwell, adventure, NBC, 1946–1949, 30 minutes. The Adventures of Frank Race, adventure, syndicated, 1949–1950, 30 minutes. The stars were Tom Collins and Paul Dubov as Frank Race and Tony Barnett as Mark Donovan. The announcer was Art Gilmore, and the music by Ivan Ditmars. The Adventures of Gracie, (also known as The Vintage White Owl Program) comedy, CBS, 1934–1935, 30 minutes. The hosts and stars were George Burns and Gracie Allen. Vocalists included The Picken Sisters and the White Owl Buccaneers. The announcer was Bill Goodwin. Robert E. Dolan led the orchestra. The Adventures of Helen and Mary, children's, CBS, 1929–1934, 30 minutes. Became Let's Pretend. Estelle Levy played Helen, Patricia Ryan played Mary. Maurice Brown was the announcer. The Adventures of Leonidas Witherall, mystery, MBS, 1944–1945, 30 minutes. Starring Walter Hampden as Leonidas Witherall, Agnes Moorehead and Ethel Remey as Mrs. Mollett and Jack MacBryde as Police Sgt. McCloud. The announcer was Carl Caruso, with music by Milton Kane. The program was produced by Roger Bower. The Adventures of Maisie (1945–1952) The Adventures of Nero Wolfe, mystery, ABC 1943-1944, 30 minutes. The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet (1944–1954), comedy, CBS 1944-1948, NBC 1948-1949, CBS - 1949, ABC 1949-1954, 30 minutes. The Adventures of Philip Marlowe, crime drama, NBC 1947, CBS 1948-1951 The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin, adventure, MBS, 1955, 30 minutes The Adventures of Sam Spade (1946–1951) The Adventures of the Abbotts mystery, NBC, 1954–1955, 30 minutes. Claudia Morgan as Jean Abbott and Les Damon as Pat Abbott. The Adventures of Superman (radio) (1938–1951) The Adventures of the Thin Man (1941–1950) Against the Storm (1939–1952) The Air Adventures of Jimmie Allen (1933–1943) The Al Jolson Show (1932–1949) Al Pearce (1928–1947) The Aldrich Family (1939–1953) Alec Templeton Time (1939–1948) Alex Dreier (1945–1963) The Amazing Nero Wolfe, mystery, MBS 1946, 30 minutes America Calling (1941) The American Album of Familiar Music (1931–1951) American Farmer (1945–1963) The American Forum of the Air (1937–1956) American Portraits (1938–1951) American Radio Warblers (1937–1952) The American School of the Air (1930–1948) America's Town Meeting of the Air (1935–1956) Amos 'n' Andy (1929–1960) The Andre Kostelanetz Show (1932–1948) The Answer Man (1937–1956) Arch Oboler's Plays (1939–1940) Archie Andrews (1943–1953) The Armstrong Theater of Today (1941–1954) The Art of Living (1949–1958) Art Van Damme (1940–1952) Arthur Godfrey Time (1945–1972) Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts (1946–1958) Arthur Tracy, the Street Singer (1931–1942) Aunt Jemima (1930–1953) Aunt Jenny’s Real Life Stories (1937–1956) Author's Playhouse (1941–1945) Bachelor's Children (1935–1946) Back to God Hour (1948–1963) Backstage Wife (1935–1959) Baukhage Talking (1942–1953) Believe It Or Not (1930–1948) The Bell Telephone Hour (1940–1958) The Ben Bernie Show (1931–1943) Benny Goodman Show (1936–1946) Betty and Bob (1932–1941) Betty Crocker Magazine of the Air (1926–1952) Betty Moore (1931–1943) Between the Bookends (1935–1956) Beulah (1945–1954) The Big Show (1950–1951) Big Sister (1936–1952) Big Town (1937–1952) The Billie Burke Show (1943–1946) The Bing Crosby Show (1931–1956) Blackhawk (1950) The Black Mass (1960–1965) The Black Museum (1951) Blondie (1939–1950) Blue Beetle (1940) Boake Carter (1933–1944) The Bob and Ray Show (1946–1989) The Bob Becker Program (1934–1944) The Bob Crosby Show (1935–1946) The Bob Hope Show (1938–1958) Bobby Benson and the B-Bar-B Riders (1932–1955) Bold Venture (1951–1952) Boston Symphony (1926–1957) Boston Blackie (1944–1950) Box 13 (1948–1949) Break the Bank (1945–1955) The Breakfast Club (1933–1968) Breakfast with Burrows, CBS, 1949. Host: Abe Burrows. Breakfast with Dorothy and Dick (1945–1960) Breen and DeRose (1927–1939) Broadway Is My Beat (1949–1954) Buck Rogers in the 25th Century (1932–1947) Bulldog Drummond (1941–1954) Burns and Allen (1932–1950) Cal Tinney (1938–1953) California Melodies (1932–1944) Calling America (1939–1963) Camel Caravan (1933–1954) The Campbell Playhouse (1938–1940) Can You Top This? (1940–1954) Captain Midnight (1940–1949) The Carnation Contented Hour (1932–1951) Carson Robinson's Buckaroo (1932–1949) Casey, Crime Photographer (1943–1955) The Catholic Hour (1929–1956) Cavalcade of America (1935–1953) CBS Church of the Air (1931–1956) CBS Radio Mystery Theater (1974–1982) Challenge of the Yukon (aka Sergeant Preston of the Yukon) (1938–1955) The Chamber Music Society of Lower Basin Street (1940–1952) The Chase and Sanborn Hour (1938–1948) Chesterfield Supper Club (1944–1950) Chicago Theater of the Air (1940–1954) Church of the Air (1937–1963) The Cisco Kid (1942–1954) Cities Service Concerts (1927–1956) Clara, Lu, and Em (1931–1945) Cleveland Symphony Orchestra (1933–1947) The Clicquot Club Eskimos (1926–1936) Cloak and Dagger (1950) Club Matinee (1937–1946) Club Time (1945–1954) Coast to Coast on a Bus (1927–1948) Coke Time (1930–1956) Colgate Sports Newsreel (1939–1957) Cook’s Travelogue (1926–1939) Counterspy (1942–1957) The Couple Next Door (1937–1960) Crime Classics (1953–1954) Crime Does Not Pay (1949–1952) Curt Massey (1943–1962) Curtain Time (1938–1950) Dark Fantasy (1941–1942) A Date with Judy (1941–1950) Dateline (1943–1963) Death Valley Days (1930–1944) Dimension X (1950–1951) The Dinah Shore Show (1939–1956) Don’t You Believe It (1938–1947) Dorothy Lamour Show (1935–1949) (1935) Double or Nothing (1940–1953) Dragnet (1949–1957) Dr. Christian (1937–1954) Dr. I.Q. (1939–1950) Dramas of Youth (1933-1940s) Duffy's Tavern (1941–1951) Eastman School of Music Symphony (1932–1942) Easy Aces (1931–1945) Eddie Michaux Congregation (1933–1953) The Eddy Duchin Show (1933–1957) The Eddy Howard Orchestra (1947–1956) The Edgar Bergern/Charlie McCarthy Show (1937–1956) Edward R. Murrow (1938–1959) Eleanor Roosevelt (1932–1949) Elmer Davis News (1939–1955) Enna Jettick Melodies (1928–1939) Escape (1947–1954) The Eveready Hour (1923–1930) The Falcon (1943–1954) Family Theater (1947–1957) Famous Jury Trials (1936–1949) Father Coughlin (1930–1942) The FBI in Peace and War (1944–1958) Fibber McGee and Molly (1935–1956) Fireside chats (1933–1944) The First Nighter Program (1930–1953) The Fleischmann's Yeast Hour (1929–36) Flywheel, Shyster and Flywheel (1930s) The Ford Sunday Evening Hour (1934–1946) Fort Laramie (1956) Foreign Policy Association Program (1927–1940) Frances Adair (1935–1938, NBC, with soprano Frances Adair) Frank and Ernest (1949–1963) The Fred Allen Show (1932–1949) The Fred Waring Show (1931–1957) The Freddy Martin Orchestra (1932–1947) The Ford Sunday Evening Hour (1934–1946) Fry Night Fights (1937–1956) Front Page Farrell (1941–1954) Frontier Gentleman (1958) Fulton Lewis, Jr. (1937–1956) Gabriel Heatter (1935–1960) Galen Drake Show (1945–1960) Gang Busters (1935–1957) General Motors Concerts (1934–1957) The George Jessel Show (1933–1954) Ghost Stories (1935–1951) The Ginny Simms Show (1942–1951) The Goldbergs (1929–1947) Grand Central Station (1937–1953) Grand Hotel (1933–1945) Grand Ole Opry (1925–present) Grand Slam (1943–1953) Grandpa and the Toad (1958–1963) The Great Gildersleeve (1941–1957) The Greatest Story Ever Told (1947–1956) The Green Hornet (1938–1952) The Guiding Light (1937–1952) Gunsmoke (1952–1961) Guy Lombardo Show (1929–1957) The Halls of Ivy (1949–1952) H. V. Kaltenborn News (1930–1953) Happy Jack Turner (1932–1941) Harry Wismer Sports (1945–1955) Harvest of Stars (1945–1950) Have Gun, Will Travel (1957–1963) Heartbeat Theatre (1956–1977) Hedda Hopper (1939–1951) Helen Hayes Theater (1935–1946) The Henry Morgan Show (1940–1951) The Hermit's Cave (1935? – 1944) Hilltop House (1937–1955) Hobby Lobby (1937–1944) The Hour of Charm (1935–1948) Hour of Faith (1942–1956) House of Glass (1935–1954) Housekeeper’s Chat (1926–1944) I Love a Mystery (1939–1952) I Love Lucy (1952) I Was a Communist for the FBI (1952–1954) Information Please (1938–1948) Inner Sanctum Mysteries (1941–1952) Invitation to Learning (1940–1963) Irene Rich Show (1933–1944) Irving Aaronson Orchestra (1935, NBC) It Pays to Be Married (1944–1955) It’s Your Business (1944–1956) Jack Armstrong the All American Boy (1933–1950) The Jack Benny Program (1932–1955) Jack Berch and His Boys (1935–1952) The Jack Carson Show (1943–1956) The Jack Eigen Show (1951–1971) Jack Kirkwood Show (1943–1953) The Jack Pearl Show (1932–1951) The Jan Garber Orchestra (1934–1967) The Jane Pickens Show (1948–1957) The Jim Backus Show (1947–1958) The Jimmy Wakely Show (1946–1958) John McVane (1945–1956) Johnny Modero, Pier 23 (1947) The Johnson Family (1941–1950) Joseph C. Harsch (1947–1956) Joyce Jordan, M.D. (1938–1955) Judy and Jane (1932–1947) The Judy Canova Show (1943–1953) Jungle Jim (1935–1954) Junior Miss (1942–1954) Just Plain Bill (1932–1955) The Kate Smith A&P Bandwagon (1936, CBS, 8-9:00 p.m. Thursdays) The Kate Smith Hour (1930–1958) Kate Smith's Coffee Time (1935, CBS, 7:30-7:45 p.m. Tuesday-Thursday) Kay Kyser's Kollege of Musical Knowledge (1938–1949) Kraft Music Hall (1933–1949) Land of the Lost (1944–1948) The Landt Trio (1928–1951) The Lanny Ross Show (1929–1952) Leading Question (1953–1963) Let George Do It (1946–1955) Let's Dance (1934–1935) Let's Pretend (1937–1954) The Life of Riley (1944–1951) The Light of the World (1940–1950) Lights Out (1934–1947) Linda’s First Love (1939–1950) Little Orphan Annie (1931–1943) The Lone Ranger (1933–1954) Longines Symphonette (1943–1958) Looking Over the Week (1933–1946) The Louella Parsons Show (1931–1951) Louisiana Hayride (1948–1958) Lone Journey (1940–1952) Lorenzo Jones (1937–1955) Lowell Thomas and the News (1930–1976) Lum and Abner (1931–1953) Lux Radio Theater (1934–1955) Ma Perkins (1933–1960) Major Bowes Capitol Family Hour (1925–1941) Major Bowes Amateur Hour (1935–1946) The Man Called X (1944–1952) Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (1933–1949) The March of Time (1931–1945) Mark Trail (1950–1952) Martin Agronsky (1944–1956) The Mary Lee Taylor Show (1937–1954) Mary Margaret McBride (1937–1954) Maurice, the Singer of Romance (1935, NBC, Morrie Abrams, singer) Meet Corliss Archer (1943–1955) The Mercury Theatre on the Air (1938) Meredith Willson (1936–1954) Metropolitan Opera Auditions of the Air (1935–1958) The Michael Medved Show (1996–present) Michael Shayne, crime drama, ABC, 1952–1953, 30 minutes. Robert Sterling played Mike Shayne, with Judith Parrish as Phyllis Knight. Music by John Duffy.[1] The Mickey Mouse Theater of the Air (1938) Midweek Hymn Sing (1926–1936) The Mildred Bailey Revue (1933–1944) The Milton Berle Show (1939–1948) Modern Romances (1936–1955) Molle Mystery Theater (1943–1954) Monitor (1955–1975) Morgan Beatty News (1942–1953) The Morton Downey Show (1930–1951) Mr. and Mrs. North (1942–1954) Mr. District Attorney (1939–1953) Mr. Keen, Tracer of Lost Persons (1937–1955) Murder at Midnight (1946–1947) Music Appreciation Hour (1928–1941) Music from Hollywood (1937–1950) Music That Satisfies (1932–1945) My Favorite Husband (1948–1951) My Friend Irma (1947–1954) My Little Margie (1952–1955) Myrt and Marge (1931–1947) The Mysterious Traveler (1943–1952) National Barn Dance (1933–1950) The National Farm and Home Hour (1929–1958) National Radio Forum (1931–1943) The Navy Hour (1930–1954) NBC Music Appreciation Hour (1929–1941) NBC Symphony Orchestra (1937–1954) Nelson Olmsted (1939–1951) The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1939–1947) The New Adventures of Nero Wolfe (1950–1951) New York Philharmonic Orchestra (1927–1963) Newsroom of the Air (1940–1955) Nick Carter, Master Detective (1943–1955) Nightbeat (1950–1952) Of Men and Books (1939–1948) Official Detective (1946–1957) Old Gold on Broadway (1933–1948) On the Line with Bob Considine (1947–1963) One Man's Family (1932–1959) One Night Stand (1942–1962) The O’Neills (19343-1943) Our Gal Sunday (1937–1959) Our Miss Brooks (1948–1957) Our Secret Weapon (1942–1943), CBS Radio, counterpropaganda talk with Rex Stout Ozark Jubilee (1953–1960) on ABC Radio The Passing Parade (1938–1949) Pat O'Daniel and His Hillbilly Boys (1930s) The Paul Whiteman Hour (1927–1954) The Pause That Refreshes (1934–1948) People Are Funny (1942–1960) The People’s Platform (1938–1952) Pepper Young's Family (1936–1959) The Perry Como Show (1943–1955) Perry Mason (1943–1955) Pete Kelly's Blues (1951) The Phil Cook Show (1930–1952) The Phil Harris-Alice Faye Show (1948–1954) The Philadelphia Symphony (1932–1957) The Philip Morris Playhouse (1939–1953) Pick and Pat (1934–1945) Police Headquarters (1932) Portia Faces Life (1940–1951) Professor Quiz (1936–1948) Proudly We Hail (1947–1957) Queen for a Day (1945–1957) Quiet, Please (1947–1949) Quiz Kids (1940–1953?) Radio City Music Hall (1932–1942) The Radio Guild (1929–1940) The Ranch Boys (1934–1956) The Red Foley Show (1951–1961) Red Ryder (1942–1951) The Red Skelton Show (1941–1952) Religion in the News (1933–1950) The Richard Maxwell Show (1929–1946) Right to Happiness (1939–1960) Rin-Tin-Tin (1930–1955) Road of Life (1937–1959) The Robert Q. Lewis Show (1945–1959) The Rochester Orchestra (1929–1942)) Romance (1932–1957) The Romance of Helen Trent (1933–1960) Rosemary (1944–1955) Roy Rogers Show (1944–1955) The Rubinoff Orchestra (1931–1943) The Rudy Vallée Show (1929–1947) The Sammy Kaye Show (1937–1956) Saturday Night Serenade (1936–1948) Scattergood Baines (1938–1950) The Screen Guild Theater (1939–1952) The Sealed Book (1945) Second Husband (1937–1946) Second Mrs. Burton (1946–1960) Sergeant Preston of the Yukon (1946–1955) Seth Parker (1929–1939) The Shadow (1937–1954) Shell Chateau (1935-1937) Silver Theatre (1937–1950) Singin' Sam (1930–1947) Singing Story Lady (1932–1941) Singin' Sam (1930–1947) The Six Shooter (1952–1954) Smilin' Ed Maxwell Show (1932–1941) Smoke Dreams (1928–1946) Snow Village Sketches (1928–1947) The Southernaires Quartette (1930–1951) Space Patrol (1952–1955) The Stan Freberg Show (1957) Stan Lomax (1935–1944) Star and the Story (1944) Stella Dallas (1938–1955) Stoopnagle and Budd (1930–37) Stop Me If You've Heard This One (1939–1948) Story Time (1929–1956) Strictly from Dixie (1941–1954) The Strange Dr. Weird (1944–45) Strike It Rich (1947–1957) Stroke of Fate (1953) Suspense (1942–1962) Take It or Leave It (1940–1952) Talent Round-Up (ABC, 1955) Tales of Fatima (1949) Tales of the Texas Rangers (1950–1952) Tarzan (1932–1953) The Ted Lewis Show (1934–1948) The Ted Steele Orchestra (1939–1955) Terry and the Pirates (1937–1948) Texaco Star Theater (1938–1948) Theatre Guild on the Air (1945–1954) The Lives of Harry Lime (1951–1952) This Is Nora Drake (1947–1959) This Is Your FBI (1945–1953) The Three Suns (1940–1956) Today's Children (1932–1938) Tom Corbett, Space Cadet (1952) Tom Mix (1933–1950) Tommy & the Bull (1990–1995) Tommy Riggs and Betty Lou (1938–1946) Tom Terris (1932–1941) The Tommy Dorsey Show (1937–1947) Tony Won’s Scrapbook (1930–1943) The Town Crier (1929–1943) Treasury Agent (1946–1958) True Confessions (1944–1958) True Detective Mysteries (1929–1958) True or False (1938–1956) Truth or Consequences (1940–1957) Tune Detective (1931–1947) Twenty Questions (1946–1954) Uncle Don (1928–1947) University of Chicago Round Table (1933–1955) Valiant Lady (1938–1952) Vic and Sade (1932–1957) Victor Lindlahr (1936–1953) Viva America CBS (1942–1949) The Voice of Experience (1933–1944) The Voice of Firestone (1928–1957) Vox Pop (1935–1947) Voyage of the Scarlet Queen (1947–1948) Walter Winchell’s Journal (1932–1955) Waltz Time (1933–1948) Washington Merry-Go-Round (1935–1953) We Love and Learn (1942–1951) We, the People (1936–1951) What’s the Name of That Song? (1944–1954) When a Girl Marries (1939–1958) The Whisperer (1951) The Whistler (1942–1955) The Wife Saver (1932–1942) Wilderness Road (1936–1945) Wings of Healing (1952–1963) Wings Over Jordan (1939–1949) Woman in White (1938–1947) The Woody Herman Show (1945–1956) Words and Music (1931–1945) World News Today (1941–1963) X Minus One (1955–1958) The Xavier Cugat Show (1933–1944) You Bet Your Life (1947–1950) Young Dr. Malone (1939–1960) Young Widder Brown (1938–1956) Your Hit Parade (1935–1959) Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar (1949–1962)